Tacoma IV PG-92 - History

Tacoma IV PG-92 - History


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Tacoma IV

(PG-92: dp. 247 (f.); 1. 166'; b. 24'; dr. 6'; s. 37.6 k.;
cpl. 24; a. 1 3", 1 40mm., 4 .60-car. mg.; cl. Asheville)

The fourth Tacoma (PG-92) was laid down on 24 July 1967 at Tacoma, Wash., by the Tacoma Boatbuilding Co., launched on 13 April 1968, sponsored by Mrs. Arne K. Strom, and commissioned on 14 July 1969, Lt. Frank H. Thomas, Jr., in command.

During the fall of 1969, Tacoma conducted shakedown training and independent ship exercises along the California coast. While so engaged on 16 October, she joined in a search and rescue mission and recovered a sailor who had fallen overboard from Neches (AO-47) the previous night. At the completion of refresher training, she participated in amphibious exercise PHIBELEX/ BLT 4 69, off Camp Pendleton, Calif., in early December. In January 1970, she entered Long Beach Naval Shipyard for post-shakedown availability. Tacoma returned to San Diego on 20 May and began preparations for deployment to the western Pacific. On 1 August, after two months of operations out of San Diego, she got underway for the Mariana Islands. Following a week-long stopover in Pearl Harbor, the gunboat arrived in her new home port, Apra, Guam, on the 28th.

For almost four years, Tacoma alternated between deployments to Vietnam and patrols in the islands of the Trust Territories of Micronesia. Her first tour of duty in Vietnamese waters began on 28 September 1970 when she arrived at Cam Ranh Bay after a week of upkeep at Subic Bay in the Philippines. She was assigned to the Coastal Surveillance Force and participated in search and rescue missions and interdicted communist coastal supply traffic in Operation "Market Time." On 22 November, she and several other units of the Coastal Surveillance Force cooperated in the destruction of a North Vietnamese infiltration trawler. She operated off the coast of Vietnam for two more months and then returned to Subic Bay on 31 January 1971. She remained there two weeks and then headed for Guam, arriving in Apra Harbor on 20 February.

For almost five months, the gunboat underwent overhaul and operated in the vicinity of Guam. On 9 July she embarked upon her first patrol of the Micronesia Trust Territories. Between then and the 26th, she visited seven islands in the Yap and Palau districts of the Eastern Carolines, conducting surveillance and making goodwill stops. She returned to Guam on the 26th, then departed again on 10 August. While on her second patrol in the Trust Territories, 10 August to 1 September, Tacoma visited 19 islands in the Truk and Ponape districts and apprehended a Japanese fishing vessel violating the territorial waters of the Trust Territories at Ngatik Island. She resumed operations in and around Guam on 1 September and was so occupied until early November.

On 5 November, the gunboat departed Guam in company with Asheville (PG 84) and headed, via Subic Bay, for Vietnamese waters. On the 29th, she and Asheville relieved Crockett (PG-88) and Welch (PG-93) and resumed "Market Time" operations interdicting communist coastal supply traffic. After almost two months patrolling the Vietnamese coastline, Tacoma departed Cam Ranh Bay on 26 January 1972 for a visit to Bangkok, Thailand. There, she welcomed officers of the Royal Thai Navy on board for tours of the ship. On 3 February, she resumed coastal surveillance patrols along the coast of Vietnam. Late in March, trouble in her starboard main engine forced her to Subic Bay for repairs. The gunboat remained there from 29 March to 24 May; then she continued on to Guam, via Yap Island.

Tacomu reached Apra Harbor on 31 May and commenced three months of sea trials, independent exercises, restricted availabilities, and inspections. After a dependents' cruise to Saipan on 3 and 4 September, the gunboat conducted refresher training until 14 October, when she headed back to Vietnam with Asheville. Between 20 October and 16 December, she made two patrols along the Vietnamese coast, broken by a visit to Bangkok, Thailand, in mid-November. On 16 December, she cleared Vietnamese waters and set sail for the Philippines. She laid over in Subic Bay from 18 to 21 December awaiting the completion of Asheville's engine repairs. Then, the two gunboats got underway for Guam, where they arrived on the 28th.

During the first three months of 1973, Tacoma operated out of Guam, primarily conducting exercises. In

February, she made a voyage to Hong Kong, via Subic Bay. The first three weeks in April saw her in port at Apra Harbor preparing for regular overhaul. Yard work on the ship began on 20 April and was completed two months later. In late June and early July, she conducted sea trials and various drills. The gunboat completed type training early in September, then put to sea on 12 September to shadow a Soviet submarine tender and fleet submarine operating in the vicinity of the northern Marianas. She returned to Apra on the 18th and, after a restricted availability, completed sea trials on 27 October. On 6 November, she began another patrol of the eastern Carolines, returning to Guam on the 24th. From 11 to 16 December, Tacoma made a Christmas gift tour of the northern Marianas.

Following repairs in December and January and refresher training in late January and early February, the gunboat departed Apra on 13 February 1974 for a three-month cruise. In late February, she participated in exercises with Midway (CVA-41), Oriskany (CVA34), and Marathon (PG - 9), out of Subic Bay. In March, Tacoma visited Singapore and cruised the Malaysian coast. Late that month, she visited Bandar Seri Begawan in Brunei on the northern coast of Borneo. After two days at Subic Bay, 4 to 6 May, she headed for Taiwan and visits to Kaohsiung and Keelung. The gunboat returned to Guam on 27 May and commenced preparations to return to the United States.

Tacoma stood out of Apra on 21 June and reached Pearl Harbor on 3 July. Five days later, she continued eastward and arrived in San Diego, Djambe Cailf., on the 16th On 1 August, she headed south along the coast of California and Mexico, stopped at Acapulco for two days, and made Rodman, in the Canal Zone, on the 17th. She transited the canal on 22 August and headed, via Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, and Port Everglades, Fla., to her new home port, Little Creek, Va., where she arrived on 2 September.

During the period 14 April-30 June 1976, Tacoma was overhauled in the Norfolk area. On 3 September, following underway refresher training, Tacoma commenced the mission of serving as a training unit for Royal Saudi Arabian naval personnel. This assignment calling for operations along the east coast of the United States and in the Caribbean, has continued into 1979.

Tacoma earned two battle stars during the Vietnam War.


Clear as Glass, Part IV

The ongoing puzzle hidden in a collection of glass plate photographs from a century ago continues. Central to the mystery is the identity of the photographer but concealed in the images themselves are a series of stories and bits of information that help create a profile of our anonymous artist. As mentioned previously, our itinerant photographer operates on the lower economic end of the business world he is recording. With a few exceptions he is not making heroic status portraits of important civic leaders-the bankers, politicians and power brokers. For the most part, he is taking a single glass plate image of each customer at their respective workplaces, making them paper prints of the photograph and stocking away the precious glass plate negatives. The charm and small narratives that go with each photo are found in the forthright portraits of working people, their simple but proud establishments and the optimism displayed in simply having their picture taken.

Per Norder immigrated to the United States from Sweden in 1909 when he was 57 years old. With his wife Emily and fifteen year old daughter Ann they found their way to Tacoma where Per started a shoemaker’s shop on South Union Avenue. From 1910 until his death in 1933, P. A. Norder practiced his trade as a cobbler moving in 1915 into the former North Pacific Bank Building and cleverly borrowing the name for his new “Shoe Hospital”. The sturdy little brick building is still there

Detail with reflection of photographer

on the South Tacoma Way streetscape missing its shoe shaped sign, striped awning and the gold leaf name of the proprietor on the front door. And if you look very closely, there is the reflection of our photographer and his camera on the storefront glass, too indefinite an image to see a face but another glimpse of the elusive mystery man.

Most of the shopfront photographs in the collection are taken at an angle to capture the full storefronts or groups of people in the compositions. The straight on photos are the ones to search for a reflection of the photographer, a optical trap where the intended glass plate photo captures an unintended clue about the appearance of the photographer. Here’s another glimpse of the image maker at work.

Smith’s Button Works operated at an unidentified location, probably in Tacoma where the buildings were brick, the sidewalks were concrete and high waisted fashions were not yet held together by zippers. When the three young women posed for their photograph about 1919 our photographer was there in the shot, box camera at eye level and a newsboy’s cap on his head. He’s using a cable shutter release so he can look directly at the expressions and details of the moment without viewing through the camera lens. He knows what he’s doing.

And here at the U.S. Postal Station on South 38th Street in 1918 or 1919 the shot was taken perfectly straight on reflecting the tripod and photographer in the glass panels on the door. According to Tacoma city directories, the postmistress is either Lulu Horsfall or Stella Titlow with spectacles in hand and dark cuffs to protect her white blouse from ink stains. The photographer is wearing his newsboy cap, a white collar on his shirt and even the streetcar rails on busy 38th are clear in the reflection but his face is illegible. One more clue delivered like an unsigned letter.

And now a perplexing but valuable reflection portrait of our photographer, seen off to the side of his camera as if watching someone else trip the shutter. The picture captures four men in front of an undistinguished storefront. A faint flag in the window suggests its about 1917 or 18, a large heating stove and bare light bulb can be made out inside but there is little else to indicate the type of business or location.

Of all the photographs in the collection this one has the clearest and most complete reflection of the unknown photographer, there in his cap holding the familiar camera case that shows up on many of the other glass plate negatives. But who is taking the picture? Is there a sidekick or apprentice working with the cameraman? One step forward, one step back in this detective story.

As the search for clues continues here are the photos we are researching right now for location, identities, dates and possible matches with other known photographs. The illustrated beautifully the range of clients and subjects chosen by the photographer and may hold unrecognized clues to his travels, associations and perhaps his identity. See anything we might be missing?

We suspect this coffee shop was on Union Avenue in South Tacoma but the hillside reflected in the glass is hard to match.

More to come as we post more from the collection and uncover more details about these amazing windows into a world a century away.

Thanks to Ed Nolan at the Washington State Historical Society and Feliks Banel for help with the question “Can you crowdsource the solution to a 100 year old mystery?”


History

In 1972 a Skokie-based attorney Bernard Saltzberg, proud father of three sons with developmental disabilities, envisioned a nurturing community wherein his growing boys and other young people might thrive after their formal schooling ended at age 22.

Bernie envisioned a residence— a “home” in which people with disabilities could share a safe, caring and comfortable environment. After much hard work to obtain funding for the project, Bernie and other community parents purchased a residence located on a small cul-de-sac in Skokie. Soon after, the group purchased a six-flat apartment building on the same street and began welcoming even more individuals. In September of 1973, Bernie suspended his legal practice and was appointed Orchard Village’s first Executive Director.

Today, Orchard Village takes a more community-integrated residential approach, with more than 70 individuals now living in 10 residences spread throughout the Skokie, Glenview, Morton Grove and Niles municipalities. Another 25 live more independently in community apartments. In 1977, the organization began its vocational/job-placement program, which serves more than 100 individuals each year. In the 1980s Orchard Village began serving families who care for their loved one(s) with a disability in the family home. And in 2007, Orchard Academy was launched to address the transition and therapeutic needs of certain high school special education students.

Orchard Village employs approximately 150 full and part-time individuals who bring a wide range of credentials, skills and training to their work.


Contents

King Baldwin IV of Jerusalem died in 1185, leaving the Kingdom of Jerusalem to his nephew Baldwin V, whom he had crowned as co-king in 1183. Count Raymond III of Tripoli again served as regent. The following year, Baldwin V died before his ninth birthday, and his mother Princess Sybilla, sister of Baldwin IV, crowned herself queen and her husband, Guy of Lusignan, king. Raynald of Châtillon, who had supported Sybilla's claim to the throne, raided a rich caravan travelling from Egypt to Syria, and had its travelers thrown in prison, thereby breaking a truce between the Kingdom of Jerusalem and Saladin. [13] [14] Saladin demanded the release of the prisoners and their cargo. The newly crowned King Guy appealed to Raynald to give in to Saladin's demands, but Raynald refused to follow the king's orders.

This final act of outrage by Raynald gave Saladin the opportunity he needed to take the offensive against the Kingdom of Jerusalem, and in 1187 he laid siege to the city of Tiberias. Raymond advised patience, but King Guy, acting on advice from Raynald, marched his army to the Horns of Hattin outside of Tiberias. Saladin's forces fought the Frankish army, thirsty and demoralized, and destroyed it in the ensuing Battle of Hattin (July 1187).

King Guy and Raynald were brought to Saladin's tent, where Guy was offered a goblet of water because of his great thirst. Guy took a drink and then passed the goblet to Raynald. Raynald's having received the goblet from King Guy rather than from Saladin meant that Saladin would not be forced to offer protection to the treacherous Raynald (custom prescribed that if one were personally offered a drink by the host, one's life was safe). When Raynald accepted the drink from King Guy's hands, Saladin told his interpreter, "say to the King: 'it is you who have given him to drink'". [15] Afterwards, Saladin beheaded Raynald for past betrayals. Saladin honored tradition with King Guy, sending him to Damascus and eventually allowing him to be ransomed by his people.

By the end of 1187 Saladin had taken Acre and Jerusalem. Christians would not hold the city of Jerusalem again until 1229. [16] Pope Urban III is said to have collapsed and died (October 1187) upon hearing the news of the Battle of Hattin. [17]

The new pope, Gregory VIII, in the bull Audita tremendi (29 October 1187), interpreted the capture of Jerusalem as punishment for the sins of Christians across Europe he called for a new crusade to the Holy Land.

The crusade of Frederick Barbarossa, Holy Roman Emperor, was "the most meticulously planned and organized" yet. [18] Frederick was sixty-six years old when he set out. [19] Two accounts dedicated to his expedition survive: the History of the Expedition of the Emperor Frederick and the History of the Pilgrims. [20]

Taking the cross Edit

On 27 October 1187, just over three weeks after Saladin's capture of Jerusalem, Pope Gregory VIII sent letters to the German episcopate announcing his election and ordering them to win the German nobility over to a new crusade. Around 23 November, Frederick received letters that had been sent to him from the rulers of the Crusader states in the East urging him to come to their aid. [21]

By 11 November, Cardinal Henry of Marcy had been appointed to preach the crusade in Germany. He preached before Frederick and a public assembly in Strasbourg around 1 December, as did Bishop Henry of Strasbourg. About 500 knights took the cross at Strasbourg, but Frederick demurred on the grounds of his ongoing conflict with Archbishop Philip of Cologne. He did, however, send envoys to Philip of France (at the time his ally) to urge him to take the cross. On 25 December, Frederick and Philip met in person on the border between Ivois and Mouzon in the presence of Henry of Marcy and Joscius, Archbishop of Tyre, but he could not convince Philip to go on crusade because he was at war with England. [21]

Frederick held a diet in Mainz on 27 March 1188. Because of its purpose, he named the diet the "Court of Christ". The archbishop of Cologne submitted to Frederick and peace was restored to the empire. Bishop Godfrey of Würzburg preached a crusade sermon and Frederick, at the urging of the assembly, took the cross. He was followed by his son, Duke Frederick VI of Swabia, [a] and by Duke Frederick of Bohemia, [b] Duke Leopold V of Austria, Landgrave Louis III of Thuringia [c] and a host of lesser nobles. [25]

After taking the cross, Frederick proclaimed a "general expedition against the pagans" in accordance with the pope's instructions. He set the period of preparation as 17 April 1188 to 8 April 1189 and scheduled the army to assemble at Regensburg on Saint George's Day (23 April 1189). To prevent the crusade from degenerating into an undisciplined mob, participants were required to have at least three marks, which was enough to be able support oneself for two years. [25]

Protecting the Jews Edit

At Strasbourg, Frederick imposed a small tax on the Jews of Germany to fund the crusade. He also put the Jews under his protection and forbade anyone to preach against the Jews. [21] The First and Second Crusades in Germany had been marred by violence against the Jews. The Third Crusade itself occasioned an outbreak of violence against the Jews in England. Frederick successfully prevented a repetition of those events inside Germany. [26]

On 29 January 1188, a mob invaded the Jewish quarter in Mainz and many Jews fled to the imperial castle of Münzenberg. There were further incidents connected with the "Court of Christ" in March. According to Rabbi Moses ha-Cohen of Mainz, [d] there were minor incidents from the moment people began arriving for the Court of Christ on 9 March. This culminated in a mob gathering to invade the Jewish quarter on 26 March. It was dispersed by the imperial marshal Henry of Kalden. The rabbi then met with the emperor, which resulted in an imperial edict threatening maiming or death for anyone who maimed or killed a Jew. On 29 March, Frederick and the rabbi then rode through the streets together to emphasise that the Jews had imperial protection. Those Jews who had fled in January returned at the end of April. [26]

Diplomatic preparations Edit

Shortly after the Strasbourg assembly, Frederick dispatched legates to negotiate the passage of his army through their lands: Archbishop Conrad of Mainz to Hungary, Godfrey of Wiesenbach to the Seljuk sultanate of Rûm and an unnamed ambassador to the Byzantine Empire. He may also have sent representatives to Prince Leo II of Armenia. [27]

Because Frederick had signed a treaty of friendship with Saladin in 1175, [28] he felt it necessary to give Saladin notice of the termination of their alliance. [e] On 26 May 1188, he sent Count Henry II of Dietz to present an ultimatum to Saladin. The sultan was ordered to withdraw from the lands he had conquered, to return the True Cross to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and to make satisfaction for those Christians who had been killed in his conquests, otherwise Frederick would abrogate their treaty. [30]

A few days after Christmas 1188, Frederick received Hungarian, Byzantine, Serbian, Seljuk and possibly Ayyubid envoys in Nuremberg. The Hungarians and Seljuks promised provisions and safe-conduct to the crusaders. The envoys of Stefan Nemanja, grand prince of Serbia, announced that their prince would receive Frederick in Niš. An agreement was reached with the Byzantine envoy, John Kamateros, but it required Godfrey of Würzburg, Frederick of Swabia and Leopold of Austria to swear oaths for the crusaders' good behaviour. Bishop Hermann of Münster, Count Rupert III of Nassau, the future Henry III of Dietz and the imperial chamberlain Markward von Neuenburg with a large entourage [f] were sent ahead to make preparations in Byzantium. [30]

Mustering an army Edit

At the Strasbourg assembly in December 1187, Bishop Godfrey of Würzburg urged Frederick to sail his army to the Holy Land rather than proceed overland. Frederick declined [g] and Pope Clement III even ordered Godfrey not to discuss it further. Ultimately, many Germans ignored the rendezvous at Regensburg and went to the Kingdom of Sicily, hoping to sail to the Holy Land on their own. Frederick wrote to King William II of Sicily asking him to bar such sailings. The emperor and the pope may have feared that Saladin would soon seize all the crusader ports. [27]

Frederick was the first of the three kings to set out for the Holy Land. On 15 April 1189 in Haguenau, [h] Frederick formally and symbolically accepted the staff and scrip of a pilgrim. [18] He arrived in Regensburg for the muster between 7 and 11 May. [34] The army had begun to gather on 1 May. Frederick was disappointed by the small force awaiting him, but he was dissuaded from calling off the enterprise when he learned that an international force had already advanced to the Hungarian border and was waiting for the imperial army. [23]

Frederick set out on 11 May 1189 with an army of 12,000–15,000 men, including 2,000–4,000 knights. [3] [35] [36] Contemporary chroniclers gave a range of estimates for Frederick's army, from 10,000 to 600,000 men, [i] including 4,000–20,000 knights. [3] [37] [38] [39] After leaving Germany, Frederick's army was increased by the addition of a contingent of 2,000 men led by the Hungarian prince Géza, the younger brother of the king Béla III of Hungary, and Bishop Ugrin Csák. [40] Two contingents from the Empire, a Burgundian and a Lorrainer, also joined the army during its transit of Byzantium. The army that Frederick led into Muslim territory was probably larger than the one with which he had left Germany. [36]

Passage through the Balkans Edit

Hungary Edit

Frederick sailed from Regensburg on 11 May 1189, but most of the army had left earlier by land for the Hungarian border. On 16 May, Frederick ordered the village of Mauthausen burned because it had levied a toll on the army. In Vienna, Frederick expelled 500 men from the army for various infractions. He celebrated Pentecost on 28 May encamped across from Hungarian Pressburg. During his four days encamped before Pressburg, Frederick issued an ordinance for the good behaviour of the army, a "law against malefactors" in words of one chronicle. It apparently had a good effect. [41]

From Pressburg, the Hungarian envoys escorted the crusaders to Esztergom, where King Béla III of Hungary greeted them on 4 June. He provided boats, wine, bread and barley to the army. Frederick stayed in Esztergom for four days. The king of Hungary accompanied the army to the Byzantine border at Belgrade. There were incidents during the crossing of the Drava and Tisza rivers, but the Sava was crossed on 28 June without incident. In Belgrade, Frederick staged a tournament, held a court, conducted a census of the army and wrote to the Byzantine emperor Isaac II to inform him that he had entered Byzantine territory. [42]

Byzantine Empire Edit

The army, still accompanied by Béla III, left Belgrade on 1 July, crossed the Morava and headed for Braničevo, which was the seat of the local Byzantine administration since Belgrade had been devastated in recent wars with the Serbs. The head of the Byzantine administration was a doux (duke). At Braničevo, Béla III took leave and returned to Hungary. He gave the crusaders wagons and in return Frederick gave him his boats, since they would no longer be travelling up the Danube. [43]

The Burgundian contingent under Archbishop Aimo II of Tarentaise and a contingent from Metz caught up with the army at Braničevo. The duke of Braničevo gave the army eight days' worth of provisions. The enlarged army, including a Hungarian contingent, left Braničevo on 11 July following the Via Militaris that led to Constantinople. They were harassed by bandits along the route. According to crusader sources, some captured bandits confessed that they were acting on the orders of the duke of Braničevo. [43]

On 25 July, Frederick was in Ćuprija when he received word that Peter of Brixey had arrived in Hungary with the contingent from Lorraine. It was there that the problems of communication between Frederick and Isaac became apparent. Frederick's envoys had reached Constantinople, but Isaac was away besieging rebels in Philadelphia. Nonetheless, John Kamateros wrote to inform Frederick that a market would be available in Sofia. [44] It was probably from Ćuprija that Frederick sent another envoy, a Hungarian count named Lectoforus, to Constantinople to see what was going on. [45]

Frederick was welcomed by Stefan Nemanja in Niš with pomp on 27 July. Although the Serbian ruler asked the emperor to invest with his domains, Frederick refused on the grounds that he was on a pilgrimage and did not wish to harm Isaac. A marriage alliance was arranged between a daughter of Duke Berthold of Merania and a nephew of Nemanja, Toljen. Frederick also received messages of support from Tsar Peter II of Bulgaria, but refused an outright alliance. Despite Frederick's care not to be drawn into Balkan politics, the events at Niš were regarded by the Byzantines as hostile acts. [44]

Before leaving Niš, Frederick had Godfrey of Würzburg preach a sermon on the importance of discipline and maintaining the peace. He also reorganized the army, dividing it into four, because it would be entering territory more firmly under Byzantine control and less friendly. The vanguard of Swabians and Bavarians was put under the command of the Duke of Swabia assisted by Herman IV of Baden and Berthold III of Vohburg. The second division consisted of the Hungarian and Bohemian contingents with their separate standard-bearers. The third was under the command of the Duke of Merania assisted by Bishop Diepold of Passau. The fourth was under Frederick's personal command and Rupert of Nassau was named its standard-bearer in absentia. [46]

The crusaders left Niš on 30 July and arrived in Sofia on 13 August. They found the city practically abandoned. There was no Byzantine delegation to meet them and no market. The following day the crusaders left Sofia and the Lorrainers under Peter of Brixey finally caught up with the main army. The Gate of Trajan was held by a Byzantine force of 500 men. According to Diepold of Passau, the garrison retreated at the sight of Frederick's scouts, but the History of the Expedition says that it retreated only after being engaged by Frederick and a small group of knights. The army arrived at Pazardzhik on 20 August, finding an abundance of supplies. [47]

Conflict with Byzantium Edit

Lectoforus met the army at Pazardzhik and informed Frederick of the disrespect shown his envoys. On 24 August, the imperial army reached Philippopolis, the Byzantine forces in the area having fled at their approach. On 25 August, Lectoforus' report was confirmed: Hermann of Münster, Rupert of Nassau, Henry of Dietz and Markward von Neuenburg had been stripped of their possessions and openly mocked in presence of the Ayyubid ambassador. That same day, a Byzantine envoy, James of Pisa, arrived with a letter from Isaac, who referred to Frederick as "king of Germany", refusing him the imperial title, and accused him of plotting to put his son Frederick on the throne of Constantinople. According to the History of the Expedition, the receipt of Isaac's letter marked a break in crusader–Byzantine relations. Thereafter, the crusaders resorted to plunder and a scorched earth policy. On 26 August, the crusaders seized Philippopolis and its plentiful supplies. [45]

Isaac attempted to forge a secret alliance with Saladin to impede Frederick's progress in exchange for his empire's safety. [48] He ordered his army, under the protostrator Manuel Kamytzes, to accompany and harass the Crusaders by attacking their foraging parties. [49] About 22 November 1185, with some 2,000 horsemen, Kamytzes moved to set up an ambush for the Germans' supply train near Philippopolis, where the German emperor was staying, around 22 November 1189. The Germans were informed of this from the Armenian inhabitants of the fortress of Prousenos, where Kamytzes had set up his main camp, and set out with 5,000 cavalry to attack the Byzantine camp. The two forces met by accident near Prousenos, and in the ensuing battle, Kamytzes' men were routed. The historian Niketas Choniates, who was an eyewitness, writes that the Byzantines fled as far as Ohrid, and that Kamytzes did not rejoin his men until three days after the battle. [50]

The Germans were delayed for six months in Thrace as the Byzantines refused to let them cross. [51]

Turkish territory Edit

After reaching Anatolia, Frederick was promised safe passage through the region by the Turkish Sultanate of Rum, but was faced instead with constant Turkish hit-and-run attacks on his army. [51] A Turkish army of 10,000 men was defeated at the Battle of Philomelion by 2,000 Crusaders, with 4,174–5,000 Turks slain. [52] After continued Turkish raids against the Crusader army, Frederick decided to replenish his stock of animals and foodstuffs by conquering the Turkish capital of Iconium. On 18 May 1190, the German army defeated its Turkish enemies at the Battle of Iconium, sacking the city and killing 3,000 Turkish troops. [53]

While crossing the Saleph River on 10 June 1190, Frederick's horse slipped, throwing him against the rocks he then drowned in the river. After this, much of his army returned to Germany by sea in anticipation of the upcoming Imperial election. The Emperor's son, Frederick of Swabia, led the remaining 5,000 men to Antioch. There, the Emperor's body was boiled to remove the flesh, which was interred in the Church of Saint Peter his bones were put in a bag to continue the crusade. In Antioch, however, the German army was further reduced by fever. [54] Young Frederick had to ask the assistance of his kinsman Conrad of Montferrat to lead him safely to Acre, by way of Tyre, where his father's bones were buried. While the Imperial army did not achieve its objective of capturing Jerusalem, it did capture the capital of the Seljuk Sultanate and had inflicted considerable damage on Turkish forces, with more than 9,000 Turkish soldiers killed in all battles and skirmishes combined. [55]

Henry II of England and Philip II of France ended their war with each other in a meeting at Gisors in January 1188 and then both took the cross. [21] Both imposed a "Saladin tithe" on their citizens to finance the venture. (No such tithe had been levied in the Empire. [18] ) In Britain, Baldwin of Exeter, the archbishop of Canterbury, made a tour through Wales, convincing 3,000 men-at-arms to take up the cross, recorded in the Itinerary of Giraldus Cambrensis.

Passage Edit

King Henry II of England died on 6 July 1189. Richard succeeded him and immediately began raising funds for the crusade. In the meantime, some of his subjects departed in multiple waves by sea. Some of them together with contingents from the Holy Roman Empire and France conquered the Moorish city of Silves in Iberia during the summer of 1189, before continuing to the Holy Land. In April 1190, King Richard's fleet departed from Dartmouth under the command of Richard de Camville and Robert de Sablé on their way to meet their king in Marseille. Parts of this fleet helped the Portuguese monarch Sancho I defeat an Almohad counterattack against Santarém and Torres Novas, while another group ransacked Christian Lisbon, only to be routed by the Portuguese monarch. [56] Richard and Philip II met in France at Vézelay and set out together on 4 July 1190 as far as Lyon where they parted after agreeing to meet in Sicily Richard with his retinue, said to number 800, marched to Marseille and Philip to Genoa. [57] Richard arrived in Marseille and found that his fleet had not arrived he quickly tired of waiting for them and hiring ships, left for Sicily on 7 August, visiting several places in Italy en route and arrived in Messina on 23 September. Meanwhile, the English fleet eventually arrived in Marseille on 22 August, and finding that Richard had gone, sailed directly to Messina, arriving before him on 14 September. [58] Philip had hired a Genoese fleet to transport his army, which consisted of 650 knights, 1,300 horses, and 1,300 squires to the Holy Land by way of Sicily. [39]

William II of Sicily had died the previous year, and was replaced by Tancred, who imprisoned Joan of England—William's wife and King Richard's sister. Richard captured the city of Messina on 4 October 1190 and Joan was released. Richard and Philip fell out over the issue of Richard's marriage, as Richard had decided to marry Berengaria of Navarre, breaking off his long-standing betrothal to Philip's half-sister Alys. Philip left Sicily directly for the Middle East on 30 March 1191 and arrived in Tyre in April he joined the siege of Acre on 20 April. [59] Richard did not set off from Sicily until 10 April.

Shortly after setting sail from Sicily, King Richard's armada of 180 ships and 39 galleys was struck by a violent storm. [60] Several ships ran aground, including one holding Joan, his new fiancée Berengaria and a large amount of treasure that had been amassed for the crusade. It was soon discovered that Isaac Dukas Comnenus of Cyprus had seized the treasure. The young women were unharmed. Richard entered Limassol on 6 May and met with Isaac, who agreed to return Richard's belongings and to send 500 of his soldiers to the Holy Land. Richard made camp at Limassol, where he received a visit from Guy of Lusignan, the King of Jerusalem, and married Berengaria, who was crowned queen. Once back at his fortress of Famagusta, Isaac broke his oath of hospitality and began issuing orders for Richard to leave the island. Isaac's arrogance prompted Richard to conquer the island within days, leaving sometime before June. [61]

Siege of Acre Edit

Saladin released King Guy from prison in 1189. Guy attempted to take command of the Christian forces at Tyre, but Conrad of Montferrat held power there after his successful defence of the city from Muslim attacks. Guy turned his attention to the wealthy port of Acre. He amassed an army to besiege the city and received aid from Philip's newly arrived French army. The combined armies were not enough to counter Saladin, however, whose forces besieged the besiegers. In summer 1190, in one of the numerous outbreaks of disease in the camp, Queen Sibylla and her young daughters died. Guy, although only king by right of marriage, endeavoured to retain his crown, although the rightful heir was Sibylla's half-sister Isabella. After a hastily arranged divorce from Humphrey IV of Toron, Isabella was married to Conrad of Montferrat, who claimed the kingship in her name.

During the winter of 1190–91, there were further outbreaks of dysentery and fever, which claimed the lives of Frederick of Swabia, Patriarch Heraclius of Jerusalem, and Theobald V of Blois. When the sailing season began again in spring 1191, Leopold V of Austria arrived and took command of what remained of the imperial forces. Philip of France arrived with his troops from Sicily in May. A neighboring army under Leo II of Cilician Armenia also arrived. [62]

Richard arrived at Acre on 8 June 1191 and immediately began supervising the construction of siege weapons to assault the city, which was captured on 12 July. Richard, Philip, and Leopold quarrelled over the spoils of the victory. Richard cast down the German standard from the city, slighting Leopold. In the struggle for the kingship of Jerusalem, Richard supported Guy, while Philip and Leopold supported Conrad, who was related to them both. It was decided that Guy would continue to rule but that Conrad would receive the crown upon his death. Frustrated with Richard (and in Philip's case, in poor health), Philip and Leopold took their armies and left the Holy Land in August. Philip left 7,000 French crusaders and 5,000 silver marks to pay them. [1]

On 18 June 1191, soon after Richard's arrival at Acre, he sent a messenger to Saladin requesting a face to face meeting. Saladin refused, saying that it was customary for kings to meet each other only after a peace treaty had been agreed, and thereafter "it is not seemly for them to make war upon each other". The two therefore never met, although they did exchange gifts and Richard had a number of meetings with Al-Adil, Saladin's brother. [63] Saladin tried to negotiate with Richard for the release of the captured Muslim soldier garrison, which included their women and children. On 20 August, however, Richard thought Saladin had delayed too much and had 2,700 of the Muslim prisoners decapitated in full view of Saladin's army, which tried unsuccessfully to rescue them. [64] Saladin responded by killing all of the Christian prisoners he had captured.

Battle of Arsuf Edit

After the capture of Acre, Richard decided to march to the city of Jaffa. Control of Jaffa was necessary before an attack on Jerusalem could be attempted. On 7 September 1191, however, Saladin attacked Richard's army at Arsuf, 30 miles (50 km) north of Jaffa. Saladin attempted to harass Richard's army into breaking its formation in order to defeat it in detail. Richard maintained his army's defensive formation, however, until the Hospitallers broke ranks to charge the right wing of Saladin's forces. Richard then ordered a general counterattack, which won the battle. Arsuf was an important victory. The Muslim army was not destroyed, despite losing 7,000 [65] men, but it did rout this was considered shameful by the Muslims and boosted the morale of the Crusaders. Arsuf had dented Saladin's reputation as an invincible warrior and proved Richard's courage as soldier and his skill as a commander. Richard was able to take, defend, and hold Jaffa, a strategically crucial move toward securing Jerusalem. By depriving Saladin of the coast, Richard seriously threatened his hold on Jerusalem. [66]

Advances on Jerusalem and negotiations Edit

Following his victory at Arsuf, Richard took Jaffa and established his new headquarters there. He offered to begin negotiations with Saladin, who sent his brother, Al-Adil (known as 'Saphadin' to the Franks), to meet with Richard. Negotiations, which included attempts to marry Richard's sister Joan or niece Eleanor, Fair Maid of Brittany to Al-Adil respectively, failed, and Richard marched to Ascalon, which had been recently demolished by Saladin. [67] [68]

In November 1191 the Crusader army advanced inland towards Jerusalem. On 12 December Saladin was forced by pressure from his emirs to disband the greater part of his army. Learning this, Richard pushed his army forward, spending Christmas at Latrun. The army then marched to Beit Nuba, only 12 miles from Jerusalem. Muslim morale in Jerusalem was so low that the arrival of the Crusaders would probably have caused the city to fall quickly. Appallingly bad weather, cold with heavy rain and hailstorms, combined with fear that if the Crusader army besieged Jerusalem, it might be trapped by a relieving force, led to the decision to retreat back to the coast. [69]

Richard called on Conrad to join him on campaign, but he refused, citing Richard's alliance with King Guy. He too had been negotiating with Saladin as a defence against any attempt by Richard to wrest Tyre from him for Guy. However, in April, Richard was forced to accept Conrad as king of Jerusalem after an election by the nobles of the kingdom. Guy had received no votes at all Richard sold him Cyprus as compensation. Before he could be crowned, Conrad was stabbed to death by two Hashshashin in the streets of Tyre. Eight days later, Richard's nephew Henry II of Champagne married Queen Isabella, who was pregnant with Conrad's child. It was strongly suspected that the king's killers had acted on instructions from Richard.

During the winter months, Richard's men occupied and refortified Ascalon, whose fortifications had earlier been razed by Saladin. The spring of 1192 saw continued negotiations and further skirmishing between the opposing forces. On 22 May the strategically important fortified town of Darum on the frontiers of Egypt fell to the crusaders, following five days of fierce fighting. [70] The Crusader army made another advance on Jerusalem, and in June it came within sight of the city before being forced to retreat again, this time because of dissention amongst its leaders. In particular, Richard and the majority of the army council wanted to force Saladin to relinquish Jerusalem by attacking the basis of his power through an invasion of Egypt. The leader of the French contingent, the Duke of Burgundy, however, was adamant that a direct attack on Jerusalem should be made. This split the Crusader army into two factions, and neither was strong enough to achieve its objective. Richard stated that he would accompany any attack on Jerusalem but only as a simple soldier he refused to lead the army. Without a united command the army had little choice but to retreat back to the coast. [71]

Saladin's attempt to recapture Jaffa Edit

In July 1192, Saladin's army suddenly attacked and captured Jaffa with thousands of men, but Saladin lost control of his army due to their anger for the massacre at Acre. It is believed that Saladin even told the Crusaders to shield themselves in the Citadel until he had regained control of his army.

Richard had intended to return to England when he heard the news that Saladin and his army had captured Jaffa. Richard and a small force of little more than 2,000 men went to Jaffa by sea in a surprise attack. Richard's forces stormed Jaffa from their ships and the Ayyubids, who had been unprepared for a naval attack, were driven from the city. Richard freed those of the Crusader garrison who had been made prisoner, and these troops helped to reinforce the numbers of his army. Saladin's army still had numerical superiority, however, and they counter-attacked. Saladin intended a stealthy surprise attack at dawn, but his forces were discovered he proceeded with his attack, but his men were lightly armoured and lost 700 men killed due to the missiles of the large numbers of Crusader crossbowmen. [72] The battle to retake Jaffa ended in complete failure for Saladin, who was forced to retreat. This battle greatly strengthened the position of the coastal Crusader states. [73]

On 2 September 1192, following his defeat at Jaffa, Saladin was forced to finalize a treaty with Richard providing that Jerusalem would remain under Muslim control, while allowing unarmed Christian pilgrims and traders to visit the city. Ascalon was a contentious issue as it threatened communication between Saladin's dominions in Egypt and Syria it was eventually agreed that Ascalon, with its defences demolished, be returned to Saladin's control. Richard departed the Holy Land on 9 October 1192.

Neither side was entirely satisfied with the results of the war. Though Richard's victories had deprived the Muslims of important coastal territories and re-established a viable Frankish state in Palestine, many Christians in the Latin West felt disappointed that he had elected not to pursue the recapture of Jerusalem. [74] Likewise, many in the Islamic world felt disturbed that Saladin had failed to drive the Christians out of Syria and Palestine. Trade flourished, however, throughout the Middle East and in port cities along the Mediterranean coastline. [75]

Saladin's scholar and biographer Baha al-Din recounted Saladin's distress at the successes of the Crusaders:

'I fear to make peace, not knowing what may become of me. Our enemy will grow strong, now that they have retained these lands. They will come forth to recover the rest of their lands and you will see every one of them ensconced on his hill-top,' meaning in his castle, 'having announced, "I shall stay put" and the Muslims will be ruined.' These were his words and it came about as he said. [76]

Richard was arrested and imprisoned in December 1192 by Leopold V, Duke of Austria, who suspected Richard of murdering Leopold's cousin Conrad of Montferrat. Leopold had also been offended by Richard casting down his standard from the walls of Acre. He was later transferred to the custody of Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor, and it took a ransom of one hundred and fifty thousand marks to obtain his release. Richard returned to England in 1194 and died of a crossbow bolt wound in 1199 at the age of 41.

In 1193, Saladin died of yellow fever. His heirs would quarrel over the succession and ultimately fragment his conquests.

Henry of Champagne was killed in an accidental fall in 1197. Queen Isabella then married for a fourth time, to Amalric of Lusignan, who had succeeded his brother Guy, positioned as King of Cyprus. After their deaths in 1205, her eldest daughter Maria of Montferrat (born after her father's murder) succeeded to the throne of Jerusalem.

Richard's decision not to attack Jerusalem would lead to the call for a Fourth Crusade six years after the third ended in 1192. However, Richard's victories facilitated the survival of a wealthy Crusader kingdom centred on Acre. Historian Thomas F. Madden summarises the achievements of the Third Crusade:

. the Third Crusade was by almost any measure a highly successful expedition. Most of Saladin's victories in the wake of Hattin were wiped away. The Crusader kingdom was healed of its divisions, restored to its coastal cities, and secured in a peace with its greatest enemy. Although he had failed to reclaim Jerusalem, Richard had put the Christians of the Levant back on their feet again. [77]


Tacoma IV PG-92 - History

Established in 1973 by Dr. Jonathan V. Wright , a well-known pioneer in natural medicine, researcher, author and speaker, Tahoma Clinic has provided evidence-based natural treatments to thousands of patients. Located between Seattle and Tacoma, just 15 minutes from Sea-Tac airport, the Tahoma Clinic provides a multi-faceted approach to health care. Our protocols are based on over 50,000 medical journal articles collected by Dr. Jonathan V. Wright, plus his over 40 years of clinical experience. Tahoma Clinic pioneered in the 1980s and 1990s many of the modalities used in natural medicine today.

Recommended therapies include Bio-Identical Hormone Replacement (BHRT), customized vitamin, mineral, amino acid, essential fatty acid, and botanical therapies. We provide Thermography screening for breast health, treatment for dry macular degeneration, neuronal regeneration therapies to support brain health, the Heidelberg Digestive Analysis to determine levels of stomach acid, and many more natural approaches. We invite you to view our Medical Staff and Clinic Services information. Please contact us if you have specific questions about treatments. We look forward to speaking to you!

The Tahoma Clinic is located at:
6839 Fort Dent Way, Suites #134
Tukwila, Washington 98188
Phone 206-812-9988 / Fax 206-812-9989
Hours:
Monday – Thursday, 9am – 5pm
Fri, Sat, Sun – Closed


NT-proB-type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)

B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a hormone produced by your heart. N-terminal (NT)-pro hormone BNP (NT-proBNP) is a non-active prohormone that is released from the same molecule that produces BNP. Both BNP and NT-proBNP are released in response to changes in pressure inside the heart. These changes can be related to heart failure and other cardiac problems. Levels goes up when heart failure develops or gets worse, and levels goes down when heart failure is stable. In most cases, BNP and NT-proBNP levels are higher in patients with heart failure than people who have normal heart function.

How is my level of BNP/NT-proBNP measured?

You may hear your healthcare team refer to BNP or NT-proBNP levels, depending on the equipment used by the laboratory. BNP and NT-proBNP are measured as a simple blood test to help diagnose and monitor heart failure. BNP and NT-proBNP test results provide different values. At Cleveland Clinic, doctors rely mostly on NT-proBNP testing to monitor patients with heart failure. You do not need to fast or do anything to prepare for the test.

What do the results mean?

The results help your doctor or nurse determine if you have heart failure, if worsening fatigue or shortness of breath are due to heart failure or another problem or if heart failure has progressed toward end-of-life. It is important to note that this test is only one method your doctor or nurse uses to monitor your condition. Based on your results, your doctor can choose the best treatment plan for you.

A normal level of NT-proBNP, based on Cleveland Clinic’s Reference Range is:

  • Less than 125 pg/mL for patients aged 0-74 years
  • Less than 450 pg/mL for patients aged 75-99 years

If you have heart failure, the following NT-proBNP levels could mean your heart function is unstable:

  • Higher than 450 pg/mL for patients under age 50
  • Higher than 900 pg/mL for patients age 50 and older

Your doctor or nurse can give you more specific information about your test results. Depending on your personal health history, your normal range may differ from other patients with different backgrounds.

More information about BNP/NT-proBNP is available in the references below.

Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 04/25/2019.

References

  • Januzzi JL, van Kimmenade R, Lainchbury J, et al. NT-proBNP Testing for Diagnosis and Short-Term Prognosis in Acute Destabilized Heart Failure: An International Pooled Analysis of 1256 Patients: The International Collaborative of NT-proBNP Study. Eur Heart J. 200627:330 –337. http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/content/27/3/330.long

Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy

Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy

Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy


Gold discovered in California. First wave of Chinese immigration to the U.S.

Territorial law passed banning Chinese from voting in Washington.

Territorial law banning Chinese from testifying in court cases involving whites in Washington.

Territorial law enacting poll tax for Chinese in Washington.

Meiji Restoration begins in Japan.

234 Chinese in Washington state according to the U.S. Census, comprising 1.0% of the population.

First Congressional debate over the rights of Chinese in the U.S.

Chinese miners in eastern Washington outnumbered white miners nearly two to one.

Beginning of construction of the Northern Pacific Railroad from Kalama to Tacoma, Washington, using nearly 2,000 Chinese laborers.

3,186 Chinese in Washington state according to the U.S. Census, comprising 4.2% of the population. Total in U.S.: 105,465.

Chinese Exclusion Act signed into law.

Northern Pacific Railroad transcontinental line completed from Lake Superior, using nearly 17,000 Chinese over the entire span of the project.

Beginning of large-scale contract immigration by Japanese to Hawai'i.

Anti-Chinese riots in Rock Springs, Wyoming. 28 Chinese killed by a white mob.

Three Chinese killed outside of Issaquah.

Anti-Chinese demonstrations in Tacoma. 700 Chinese residents expelled.

Anti-Chinese demonstrations in Seattle. 350 Chinese residents forcibly expelled.

Washington becomes a state.

Chinese Exclusion Act extended another ten years.

Spanish-American War. U.S. acquires the Philippines from Spain, making the the islands a protectorate.

Filipino Rebellion against U.S. occupation. Nearly 60,000 U.S. troops sent to suppress hostilities.

Chin Gee Hee returns to China to construct that nation's first railway.

U.S. Attorney General orders federal courts to stop issuing naturalization papers to Japanese.

"Gentlemen's Agreement" limits U.S. Japanese immigration to parents, wives, and children of males already here.

Nippon Kan, an ersatz Japanese community center and hotel, built in Seattle.

Chong Wa Benevolent Association established in Seattle.

Alien Land Act passed in California, prohibiting Asians from owning land.

Passage of state law barring Asian immigrants from taking "for sale or profit any salmon or other food or shellfish."

All Asian immigrants except for Japanese and Filipinos banned by order of Congress.

Alien land restrictions passed in Washington state. 1922 In Ozawa v. U.S. the Supreme Court rules that Takao Ozawa is ineligible for citizenship because of his "Mongolian" ancestry.

In Bhagat Singh Thind v. U.S. , the Supreme Court rules that racial exclusion is based on the "understanding of the common man."

Additional alien land restrictions passed in Washington state against Asians.

National Origins Act passes U.S. Congress, the most restrictive immigration legislation in U.S. history.

Anti-Filipino riot in Yakima Valley.

Anti-Filipino riot in Wenatchee Valley.

Nearly 3,000 Filipinos working in Alaskan canneries.

Formation of the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL).

Cannery Workers' and Farm Laborers' Union formed in Seattle. Virgil Duyungan, a Filipino cannery worker, is the first president.

Tydings-McDuffie Act makes the Philippines a commonwealth and promises full independence ten years later. Filipino immigration to the U.S. limited to 50 per year.

Washington state legislature attempts to pass an anti-miscegenation law prohibiting ". any person of the Caucasian or white race to intermarry with any person of the Ethiopian or black race, the Malayan or brown race, or Mongolian or yellow race."

Alien land restrictions in Washington state extended to Filipinos.

Pio DeCano successfully challenges 1937 amendment to the Washington Alien Land Law.

14,565 Japanese and Japanese Americans living in Washington state, comprising 11.5% of the population, according to the U.S. Census.

Japan attacks U.S. Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

Franklin D. Roosevelt signs Executive Order 9066, calling for the evacuation of all Japanese and Japanese Americans living on the Pacific Coast inland to internment camps.

Yakima Valley Filipinos successfully secure leasing rights on the Yakima Indian Reservation.

In December, riots break out at the Manzanar Relocation Camp in California over food shortage and the arrest of a union organizer.

Congress repeals the Chinese Exclusion Act, but allows only 105 immigrants annually.

War Relocation Authority notes that 120,313 Japanese and Japanese Americans lived in the internment camps from 1942-1945.

Chinese wives of American citizens allowed to emigrate.

Japanese American Claims Act passed, allowing limited redress for those dispossessed of their property during internment.

Communists victorious on Chinese mainland, establish the Peoples' Republic of China. Nationalists flee to Taiwan, and establish Republic of China.

9,694 Japanese and Japanese Americans living in Washington state comprise 6.8% of the population, according to the U.S. Census.

Immigration and Nationality Act (McCarran-Walter Act) eliminates race as a bar to immigration and naturalization. Token quotas still remain.

Wing Luke elected to Seattle City Council.

Immigration and Naturalization Act gives equal quota to all countries and favors immigration of professional classes. Took effect in mid-1968.

U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War ends. Cambodia falls to the Khmer Rouge.

Vincent Chin, a 27-year old Chinese American, was killed by a Detroit autoworker who mistakes him as Japanese.

Passage of reparations legislation by U.S. Congress for Japanese Americans interned during World War II.

Chinese for Affirmative Action file suit against the University of California, claiming that UC uses quotas to limit Asian American enrollment.

Gary Locke elected governor of Washington state, the first Asian on the U.S. mainland.

Proposition 209, which restricts social services for immigrants, passes by nearly 60% in California.

UW Site Map © Center for the Study of the Pacific Northwest, University of Washington


Records of the Public Health Service [PHS], 1912-1968

Established: In the Department of the Treasury by the Public Health and Marine Hospital Service Act (37 Stat. 309), August 14, 1912.

Predecessor Agencies:

Transfers: To Federal Security Agency by Reorganization Plan No. I of 1939, effective July 1, 1939 to Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) by Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1953, effective April 11, 1953 to Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) by the Department of Education Organization Act (93 Stat. 695), October 17, 1979.

Functions: Administers federal programs to protect and improve the nation's physical and mental health. Provides guidance and support to the following constituent operating health agencies: Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration Centers for Disease Control Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Food and Drug Administration Health Resources and Services Administration Indian Health Service National Institutes of Health and Agency for Health Care Policy and Research.

Finding Aids: Forrest R. Holdcamper, comp., "Preliminary Inventory of the Records of the Public Health Service," NC 34 (Oct. 1963, rev. Jan. 1966) supplement in National Archives microfiche edition of preliminary inventories.

Related Records:
Record copies of publications of the Public Health Service in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government.
General Records of the Department of the Treasury, RG 56.
Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, RG 75.
Records of the Food and Drug Administration, RG 88.
General Records of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, RG 235.
Records of the Environmental Protection Agency, RG 412.
Records of St. Elizabeths Hospital, RG 418.
Records of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, RG 442.
Records of the National Institutes of Health, RG 443.

90.2 General Records of the Public Health Service and its
Predecessors
1802-1945

History: Established in the Department of the Treasury as the Marine Hospital Service under provisions of an act of July 16, 1798 (1 Stat. 605), authorizing marine hospitals for the care of American merchant seamen. Centralized direction dates from appointment of first Surgeon General ("Supervising Surgeon of the Marine Hospital Service") pursuant to an act reorganizing the Marine Hospital Service (16 Stat. 170), June 29, 1870. Redesignated Public Health and Marine Hospital Service by an act of July 1, 1902 (32 Stat. 712), to reflect enhanced public health responsibilities in areas of research, disease prevention, and education. Redesignated PHS, 1912. See 90.1.

90.2.1 Correspondence

Textual Records: Letters sent, 1834-1921, with partial register, 1870-73, 1884-85, 1889. Letters received, 1834-97, with register, 1869-97. Letters received from quarantine stations, 1869-97. General subject file of the PHS, 1897-1944 (845 ft.), with card index, 1897-1923 (260 ft.).

90.2.2 Personnel records

Textual Records: Correspondence regarding nominations, applications, and charges against officers, 1868-1910. Lists of quarantine station employees, 1892-94. Card record of changes of personnel aides, 1919-20, 1926-32. Personnel records of PHS employees, 1877-1915, and officers in the PHS Commissioned Corps, 1873-1945. Monthly personnel reports, 1925-41.

90.2.3 Financial and budgetary records

Textual Records: Statements of the marine hospital fund, 1802-48, 1861-64. Quarterly financial returns of hospitals, 1833-50. Record of hospital dues collected from seamen, 1872-90. Appropriation ledgers, 1871-1911, 1931. Disbursement books, 1847- 1921 (with gaps). Registers of accounts, 1890-1911. Cashbooks, 1904-9, 1922-23. Allotment books, 1913-39. Relief statistics, 1860-1935 (with gaps). Miscellaneous records, 1833-1915. PHS salary ledgers, 1877-1920.

90.3 Records of PHS Operating Units
1872-1950

History: Marine Hospital Service first organized into functional divisions pursuant to reorganization order, Office of the Surgeon General, September 28, 1899. Initial organization consisted of Marine Hospitals Division (See 90.3.3), Domestic Quarantine Division (See 90.3.1), Division of Insular and Foreign Quarantine and Immigration (See 90.3.4), Division of Personnel and Accounts, Division of Statistics and Public Health Reports, and Miscellaneous Division. Informal redesignations occurred almost immediately: Marine Hospitals Division became Division of Marine Hospitals and Relief (1900) Division of Statistics and Public Health Reports became Division of Sanitary Reports and Statistics (1900) Domestic Quarantine Division became Division of Domestic (Interstate) Quarantine (1910), with formal redesignation as States Relations Division, July 1, 1941 and Division of Insular and Foreign Quarantine and Immigration became Division of Foreign and Insular Quarantine and Immigration (1905), with a brief period when the title Division of Maritime Quarantine was commonly substituted (1918-19).

Division of Scientific Research (See 90.3.6) established, September 1901, with informal redesignation as Division of Scientific Research and Sanitation by 1905. Division of Venereal Diseases (See 90.3.5) established pursuant to provisions of the Army Appropriation Act (40 Stat. 886), July 9, 1918. Narcotics Division established by the Narcotic Farms Act (45 Stat. 1086), January 19, 1929, and redesignated Division of Mental Hygiene by an act of June 14, 1930 (46 Stat. 586). (For an administrative history of this division, which became the National Institute of Mental Health, See RG 511.)

PHS Reorganization Order No. 1, December 30, 1943, implementing the Public Health Service Act (57 Stat. 587), November 11, 1943, established two headquarters components, the Bureau of Medical Services and Bureau of State Services, assigning Division of Marine Hospitals and Relief (as Hospital Division), Division of Mental Hygiene, and Division of Foreign and Insular Quarantine and Immigration (as Foreign Quarantine Division) to Bureau of Medical Services and assigning States Relations Division, Division of Venereal Diseases (as Venereal Disease Division), and newly established Industrial Hygiene Division to Bureau of State Services. Retained by the immediate Office of the Surgeon General were Division of Personnel and Accounts (split into Civil Service Personnel Section and Budget and Fiscal Office, both under the Deputy Surgeon General, and Division of Commissioned Officers) and Division of Sanitary Reports and Statistics, which was absorbed into Division of Public Health Methods which had been transferred from the National Institute of Health. (For administrative histories subsequent to reorganization of 1944, See 90.6, 90.7, and 90.8.)

90.3.1 Records of the Domestic (Interstate) Quarantine Division

History: Established as one of the initial divisions of the Marine Hospital Service, pursuant to Surgeon General's reorganization order, September 28, 1899. Commonly known as the Division of Domestic Quarantine and, after 1910, as the Division of Domestic (Interstate) Quarantine. Redesignated States Relations Division, July 1, 1941. Assigned to newly established Bureau of State Services pursuant to PHS Reorganization Order No. 1, December 30, 1943, implementing Public Health Service Act (57 Stat. 587), November 11, 1943. See 90.8.

Textual Records: Records of a conference on the future of the public health program in the United States and education of sanitarians, March 1922. Records relating to the trachoma eradication program, consisting of central office correspondence, 1912-36 weekly reports, 1929-36 correspondence of trachoma treatment hospitals at Greenville, KY, Jackson, KY, Pelham, GA, and Russelville, AR, 1917-28 clinical cards, 1916-20 and travel orders and accounts, 1921-36.

90.3.2 Records of the General Inspection Service

History: Established as the Inspection Section, February 16, 1920, and redesignated the General Inspection Service, August 14, 1920. Responsible for routine inspection of PHS administered hospitals and medical facilities (including veterans' hospitals) and for investigation of complaints (primarily from veterans) of mismanagement or mistreatment by PHS personnel. Activities significantly reduced following transfer of veterans' hospitals to Veterans Bureau, May 1, 1922. Operated through end of Fiscal Year 1924 (June 30, 1924).

Textual Records: Correspondence and index, 1920-24. Inspection and investigation reports, 1919-24. Records of a U.S. Senate investigation of the PHS, 1923. Letters of commendation, 1920-22. Newspaper clippings, 1921-24.

90.3.3 Records of the Marine Hospitals Division

History: Established as one of the initial divisions of the Marine Hospital Service, pursuant to Surgeon General's reorganization order, September 28, 1899. Commonly known as the Division of Marine Hospitals and Relief by 1900. Assigned to newly established Bureau of Medical Services pursuant to PHS Reorganization Order No. 1, December 30, 1943, implementing Public Health Service Act (57 Stat. 587), November 11, 1943. See 90.7.1.

Textual Records: Letters sent to custodians of hospitals, 1897- 1912. General correspondence of the division, 1909-36, with registers, 1884-1911, 1925-36. Records of the Purveyor, including letters sent, 1877-81 and record of medical supplies purchased and issued, 1872-90. Reports of patients admitted and discharged at Marine and Public Health Hospitals, 1877-1920. Records regarding coordination of federal public health activities, 1926- 29.

90.3.4 Records of the Division of Insular and Foreign Quarantine

History: Established as one of the initial divisions of the Marine Hospital Service, pursuant to Surgeon General's reorganization order, September 28, 1899. Commonly known as the Foreign and Insular Quarantine and Immigration Division by 1900, and as Maritime Quarantine Division, 1918-19. Assigned to newly established Bureau of Medical Services pursuant to PHS Reorganization Order No. 1, December 30, 1943, implementing Public Health Service Act (57 Stat. 587), November 11, 1943. See 90.7.

Textual Records: Correspondence with stations at Cienfuegos, Cuba, 1890-1903 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1904-6 and Danzig, Poland, 1921-36. Record of acclimatization certificates issued at Cienfuegos, Cuba, 1906.

90.3.5 Records of the Division of Venereal Diseases

History: Established pursuant to provisions of the Army Appropriation Act (40 Stat. 886), July 9, 1918. Assigned to newly established Bureau of State Services pursuant to PHS Reorganization Order No. 1, December 30, 1943, implementing Public Health Service Act (57 Stat. 587), November 11, 1943. See 90.8.

Textual Records: Decimal file, 1918-36. Legislative files, 1918- 30. Records relating to educational campaigns in colleges, institutions, and labor unions, 1918-24. Correspondence of division officials, 1918-32. Newspaper clippings relating to venereal disease control, 1919-25. General records of the Interdepartmental Social Hygiene Board, including records of the executive director, 1918-21, and scientific studies, 1919-22. Records of the Public Health Institute on Venereal Disease Control, 1921-22, Records of the Committee on Research in Syphilis, 1928-36. Correspondence concerning untreated syphilis in Macon County, Alabama (Tuskegee Syphilis Study), 1932-33.

Sound Recordings: Ballads by popular singers and commentary by well-known news reporters, recorded by Columbia University for the PHS Venereal Disease Project, 1947-50 (8 items). See also 90.14.

90.3.6 Records of the Division of Scientific Research

History: Division of Scientific Research established, September 1901, with informal redesignation as Division of Scientific Research and Sanitation by 1905. Administered Hygienic Laboratory, Washington, DC. Hygienic Laboratory redesignated National Institute of Health by Ransdell Act (46 Stat. 379), May 26, 1930 absorbed Division of Scientific Research, February 1, 1937. (For subsequent administrative history, see RG 443.)

Textual Records: Correspondence relating to the work of the division prepared for the Bureau of Efficiency, October 1917. Letters received relating to the International Congress on Tuberculosis, September 12-October 11, 1918. General records of the Office of International Public Hygiene, 1913-41. Health survey forms for Hagerstown, MD, 1921-43.

90.4 Records of PHS Hospitals and Field Medical Installations
1794-1952

90.4.1 Records of the hospital at Ashland, WI

Textual Records: Outpatient records (interfiled with those for the hospital at Duluth, MN), 1898-1915.

90.4.2 Records of the hospital at Atlantic City, NJ

Textual Records: Records of medical inspection of seamen (interfiled with those for the hospital at Tuckerton, NJ), 1906- 7.

90.4.3 Records of the hospital at Baltimore, MD

Textual Records: Registers of permits to enter hospital, 1802-4.

90.4.4 Records of the hospital at Barnstable, MA

Textual Records: Masters certificates of sick or disabled seamen, 1880-89. Prescription books (interfiled with those for the hospital at Ellsworth, ME), 1876-89.

90.4.5 Records of the hospital at Bath, ME

Textual Records: Registers of permits to enter hospital, 1802-3. Masters certificates of sick or disabled seamen, 1902-3.

90.4.6 Records of the hospital at Boothbay Harbor, ME

Textual Records: Registers of permits to enter hospital, 1899- 1939. Records of medical inspection of seamen, 1880-1939.

90.4.7 Records of the hospital at Camden, NJ

Textual Records: Registers of permits to enter hospital, 1818.

90.4.8 Records of the hospital at Charleston, SC

Textual Records: Clinical reports, 1898-1918.

90.4.9 Records of the hospital at Charlestown (Boston), MA

Textual Records: Prescription books, 1809-19.

90.4.10 Records of the hospital at Chelsea, MA

Textual Records: Copies of letters sent and received by the hospital director, 1794-1856.

90.4.11 Records of the hospital at Cincinnati, OH

Textual Records: Registers of permits to enter hospital, 1888- 1939. Registers of patients, 1871-88, with index, 1871-76. Outpatient records, 1880-89.

90.4.12 Records of the hospital at Cleveland, OH

Textual Records (in Chicago): Press copies of letters sent, 1889- 1923, with registers, 1900-1. Letters received, 1893-1928. Real estate records, 1924-26. Record of activities ("Operations Journal"), 1899-1913. Patient registers, 1870-1904. Clinical records, 1889-1922.

90.4.13 Records of the hospital at Danville, NY

Textual Records: Treatment journal, 1919-20.

90.4.14 Records of the hospital at Duluth, MN

Textual Records: Outpatient records, 1883-84. Outpatient records (interfiled with those for the hospital at Ashland, WI), 1898- 1915.

90.4.15 Records of the hospital at Edgartown, MA

Textual Records: Registers of permits to enter hospital, 1871-85.

90.4.16 Records of the hospital at Ellsworth, ME

Textual Records: Outpatient records, 1880-1911. Prescription books (interfiled with those for the hospital at Barnstable, MA), 1876-89.

90.4.17 Records of the hospital at Fort Stanton, NM

Textual Records (in Denver): Letters sent, 1899-1921. Letters received, 1899-1921. Telegrams sent relating to deaths and burials, 1905-21. Telegrams received, 1912-21. General correspondence, reports, and other records, 1890-1952. Issuances, 1901- 38. Records of staff meetings, 1925-35. Record book of patient histories, 1899-1920. Autopsy reports, 1910-36. Receipts for patients' valuables, 1926-44.

90.4.18 Records of the hospital at Georgetown, DC

Textual Records: Registers of permits to enter hospital, 1874-78. Registers of patients, 1865-95. Records of medical inspection of seamen, 1880-1912.

90.4.19 Records of the hospital at Lewes, DE

Textual Records: Registers of permits to enter hospital, 1884-89. Registers of patients, 1884-1904. Treatment journal, 1899. Outpatient records, 1878-1911. Records of medical inspection of seamen, 1895-1916. Clinical reports, 1898-1918. Case books, 1882- 89.

90.4.20 Records of the hospital at Little Egg Harbor, NJ

Textual Records: Registers of permits to enter hospital, 1872-91.

90.4.21 Records of the hospital at Middletown, CT

Textual Records: Registers of permits to enter hospital, 1820- 1905.

90.4.22 Records of the hospital at Milwaukee, WI

Textual Records: Registers of permits to enter hospital, 1870-77.

90.4.23 Records of the hospital at Mobile, AL

Textual Records (in Atlanta): Records of the Outpatient Clinic, consisting of letters sent, 1875-77 letters received, 1882-88 telegrams received, 1888 patient registers, 1871-87 treatment records, 1875-83 property management records, 1876-1918 and records relating to building and construction, 1888-1919.

Architectural and Engineering Plans: Architect's sketch of hospital, 1927 (1 item). See also 90.12.

90.4.24 Records of the hospital at New Haven, CT

Textual Records: Registers of permits to enter hospital, 1872-89.

90.4.25 Records of the hospital at New Orleans, LA

Textual Records: Registers of patients, 1910-16. Letters sent regarding Wassermann tests conducted at New Orleans, 1920.

90.4.26 Records of the hospital at Pelham, GA

Textual Records: Outpatient records, 1916-32.

90.4.27 Records of the hospital at Pensacola, FL

Textual Records: Treatment journals, 1908-19.

90.4.28 Records of the hospital at Philadelphia, PA

Textual Records: Registers of permits to enter hospital, 1811-56.

90.4.29 Records of the hospital at Portsmouth, NH

Textual Records: Registers of permits to enter hospital, 1878- 1915. Outpatient records, 1882-1915. Records of medical inspection of seamen, 1885-95. Masters certificates of sick or disabled seamen, 1813-64, 1883-1915.

90.4.30 Records of the hospital at Providence, RI

Textual Records: Registers of permits to enter hospital, 1820-65. Registers of patients, 1877-1911.

90.4.31 Records of the hospital at Rock Island, IL-Davenport, IA

Textual Records: Outpatient records, 1929-33. Medical records of injury, 1921-26. Clinical reports, 1898-1918. Masters certificates of sick or disabled seamen, 1925-40. Correspondence with the Employees' Compensation Commission, 1921-22.

90.4.32 Records of the hospital at Rockland, ME

Textual Records: Registers of permits to enter hospital, 1889- 1912. Registers of patients, 1889-1925. Outpatient records, 1902- 16. Lists of diseases treated, 1880-1927.

90.4.33 Records of the hospital at Rome, GA

Textual Records: Registers of patients, 1886-96.

90.4.34 Records of the hospital at Saginaw, MI

Textual Records: Masters certificates of sick or disabled seamen, 1935.

90.4.35 Records of St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, DC

Textual Records: Registers of patients, 1875-94. Payrolls of hospital employees, 1890-1920.

Related Records: For additional records, See RG 418, Records of St. Elizabeths Hospital.

90.4.36 Records of the hospital at St. Louis, MO

Textual Records: Registers of permits to enter hospital, 1857-65.

90.4.37 Records of the hospital at Staten Island, NY

History: Seamen's Fund and Retreat established pursuant to an act of the New York legislature, April 22, 1831, to provide hospital care to sick and disabled seamen in New York City. Closed in the summer of 1882. Property conveyed to Marine Society of New York, which leased it to the U.S. Marine Hospital Service in 1883. Purchased by the United States in 1903. U.S. Marine Hospital opened on Bedloe's Island, New York Harbor, 1879. Transferred in 1883 to site of Seamen's Fund and Retreat, Staten Island, NY. Closed as federal facility, 1981. Now operated as Bayley Seaton Hospital by Sisters of Charity of New York.

Textual Records (in New York, except as noted): Records of the Seamen's Fund and Retreat, including minutes of the Board of Trustees, 1843-50, 1863-67 reports of the Superintendent and Visiting Committee, 1842-44 financial records, 1831-66 ship registers, 1854-73 patient registers, 1835-82 case histories, 1831-70 death register, 1831-73 and autopsy register, 1852-54. Records of the PHS hospital, including patient registers, 1879- 1911 letters sent, 1904-11. Medical Officer's journal, 1906-14 registers of permits issued to enter hospital, 1881-1908, with gaps station orders, 1924-30 and (in Washington Area) medical case registers, 1831-32, and outpatient records, 1891-1939.

90.4.38 Records of the hospital at Tuckerton, NJ

Textual Records: Records of medical inspection of seamen (interfiled with those for the hospital at Atlantic City, NJ), 1906-7.

90.4.39 Records of the hospital at Washington, DC

Textual Records: Treatment journals, 1881-1916. Registers of patients, 1899- 1918. Records of medical inspection of seamen, 1930.

90.4.40 Records of the hospital at Wilmington, NC

Textual Records: Letters sent, 1882-1918. Register of letters received, n.d. Registers of permits to enter hospital, 1866-1912. Registers of patients, 1878-1911. Outpatient records, 1881-1910. Annual reports of surgical operations, 1881-98. Nurses' reports, 1880-1916. Lists of seamen received from tuberculosis hospital, Fort Stanton, NM, 1906-16. Reports of relief furnished foreign seamen, 1881-1910. Monthly meteorological surveys, 1909-17. Necropsy report, 1906.

90.4.41 Miscellaneous hospital records

Textual Records: Records of medical inspection of seamen, 1890- 1933. Masters certificates of sick or disabled seamen, 1881-1915. Reports of medical inspection of seamen, 1880-1916. Declarations of quarantine, 1892-1900. Record of physical examinations given at Boothbay Harbor, ME, Quarantine Station, 1915-39 and at other stations, 1915-24. Vessel fumigation records, 1922-29. Records of vessels inspected for quarantine, 1915-25, 1931 and inspected and fumigated, 1925-28.

90.5 Records of PHS Quarantine Stations
1807-1948

90.5.1 General records

Textual Records: Treatment journal of the medical officer aboard the quarantine launch Spray, 1880. Bills of health for vessels entering PHS quarantine stations at Baltimore, MD, 1831-32 Perth Amboy, NJ, 1819-20 Philadelphia, PA, 1869-70, 1928 Barnstable, MA, 1889-1916 New Bedford, MA, 1807-24, 1897-1917 and Cienfuegos, Cuba, 1907.

90.5.2 Records of Angel Island Quarantine Station, CA

Textual Records (in San Francisco, except as noted): Letters sent, 1899-1908 (in Los Angeles). Letters received, 1889-94 (in Los Angeles). Letters sent by the Medical Officer in Charge, 1903-26. Letters received by the Medical Officer in Charge, 1891- 1918. General administrative files, 1918-48. Personnel files, 1918-48.

90.5.3 Records of the Point Loma, Quarantine Station, CA

Textual Records (in Los Angeles): Letters sent, 1900-6. Letters received, 1904-10.

90.6 Records of the Office of the Surgeon General
1928-69

History: Position of Surgeon General, with responsibility for directing activities of Marine Hospital Service, created pursuant to an act reorganizing the Marine Hospital Service (16 Stat. 170), June 29, 1870. PHS Reorganization Order No. 1, December 30, 1943, implementing Public Health Service Act (57 Stat. 587), November 11, 1943, assigned a number of divisions to direct supervision of the Surgeon General. Initial components of the Office of the Surgeon General, 1944, were the Division of Commissioned Officers (See 90.6.3), Dental Division, Sanitary Engineering Division (formerly the Sanitary Section, States Relations Division), Division of Nurse Education (See 90.6.2), and Division of Public Health Methods (transferred from the National Institute of Health, absorbing the Division of Sanitary Reports and Statistics). Acquired responsibility for compiling vital statistics from Bureau of Census, 1946 (See 90.6.4). Division of Personnel established 1949. Absorbed Division of Commissioned Officers, June 1955. Division of International Health established, 1949 (See 90.6.5). Division of Civilian Health Requirements established April 2, 1951. Redesignated Division of Health Requirements, 1953.

90.6.1 General records

Textual Records: PHS numbered circulars, 1928-47. Regulations for the Government of the United States Public Health Service, 1931, with amendments, 1931-44.

90.6.2 Records of the Division of Nursing

History: Established in the Office of the Surgeon General by consolidation of Division of Nurse Education with Office of Nursing, Bureau of Medical Services, 1946, acquiring also professional (but not administrative) responsibilities of the Office of Public Health Nursing, Bureau of State Services. Abolished, 1949, with functions split between Division of Nursing Resources, Bureau of Medical Services (See 90.7.2) and Division of Public Health Nursing, Bureau of State Services (See 90.8.3).

Textual Records: Records of the U.S. Cadet Nurse Corps, including administrative records, 1941-46 affiliation reports, 1941-45 records relating to basic education and postgraduate programs, 1941-43 basic program budgets, 1941-43 and scrapbooks, 1943-47.

90.6.3 Records of the Division of Commissioned Officers

History: Established 1944. Absorbed by Division of Personnel, June 1955.

Textual Records: Official lists of commissioned officers, 1940- 55. Seniority lists of commissioned officers, Regular Corps, 1940-55. Division directives, 1946-51. Printed regulations, 1937- 55.

90.6.4 Records of the National Office of Vital Statistics

History: Established from Vital Statistics Division, Bureau of the Census, transferred to PHS by Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1946, effective July 17, 1946. Transferred to Bureau of State Services, 1949. Made part of Division of General Health Services, Bureau of State Services, 1954. Redesignated National Vital Statistics Division and assigned to National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Office of the Surgeon General, 1961. Superseded by Vital Statistics Division, NCHS, 1964.

Textual Records: Record set of official publications regarding vital statistics (1854-1942), compiled by the National Office of Vital Statistics, 1930-42. Correspondence, 1940-50.

90.6.5 Records of the Office of International Health Relations

History: Established 1945. Redesignated Division of International Health, 1949. Transferred to Bureau of State Services, April 1, 1953. Returned to Office of the Surgeon General, November 1, 1959. Redesignated Office of International Health, 1963. Transferred to Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, 1973.

Textual Records: Records relating to the Philippine Rehabilitation Program, 1946-49. Correspondence, 1949-69. Records of relations with foreign groups, 1945-63.

90.6.6 Records of the White House Conference on Health

History: Met November 3-4, 1965.

Textual Records: Press releases, 1965. Transcripts of panel sessions, November 1965. Lists of persons invited and registering, 1965.

Sound Recordings: Proceedings, November 1965 (88 items). See also 90.14.

90.7 Records of the Bureau of Medical Services
1945-66

History: Established as a headquarters element of PHS by PHS Reorganization Order No. 1, December 30, 1943, implementing Public Health Service Act (57 Stat. 587), November 11, 1943. Administered PHS hospitals, clinics, and outpatient facilities and administered quarantine laws. Consisted initially of Hospital Division (See 90.7.1), Mental Hygiene Division, Foreign Quarantine Division, and Office of Nursing (See 90.6.2). Federal Employee Health Division established in Bureau of Medical Services, January 1, 1947, pursuant to an act of August 8, 1946 (60 Stat. 903), to provide advice and personnel to assist federal agencies in developing and implementing employee health care programs. Division of Health Facilities Construction established in Bureau of Medical Services, 1947. In PHS reorganization of 1949, Hospital Division redesignated Division of Hospitals, absorbing Federal Employee Health Division Divisions of Dental Resources, Medical and Hospital Resources, and Nursing Resources (See 90.7.2) established in Bureau of Medical Services Mental Hygiene Division separated from Bureau of Medical Services as National Institute of Mental Health and Division of Hospital Facilities transferred from Bureau of State Services. Division of Hospital and Medical Resources abolished, June 1953. Division of Indian Health established in Bureau of Medical Services to administer responsibility, acquired from Bureau of Indian Affairs, July 1, 1955, for providing medical services to Indians and Alaska Natives. Division of Health Facilities Construction and Division of Hospital Facilities consolidated as Division of Hospital and Medical Facilities, 1955. Divisions of Nursing Resources and Dental Resources superseded by Divisions of Nursing and Dental Public Health and Resources, Bureau of State Services, September 1960. Federal Employee Health Program, Division of Hospitals, elevated to division status, 1966. Abolished by HEW reorganization order, June 29, 1967, pursuant to Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1966, effective June 25, 1966, with functions to newly established Bureau of Health Services. See RG 512.

90.7.1 Records of the Hospital Division

History: Established in Bureau of States Services, 1944, superseding Division of Marine Hospitals and Relief (See 90.3.3). Absorbed Federal Employee Health Division and redesignated Division of Hospitals, 1949. Redesignated Division of Direct Health Services and assigned to newly established Bureau of Health Services, 1967. Functions absorbed into Federal Health Programs Service, Health Services and Mental Health Administration, 1968. See RG 512.

Textual Records: Annual reports of PHS hospitals, 1957-63. Monthly dental reports, 1957-59. Statistics on medical care in PHS facilities, 1949-57. Records relating to the National Leprosarium, Carville, LA, 1945-66.

90.7.2 Records of the Division of Nursing Resources

History: Established from Division of Nursing, Office of the Surgeon General, 1949. Superseded by Division of Nursing, Bureau of State Services, September 1960. See 90.9.4.

Textual Records: Studies of nursing education and service, 1950- 60. Records relating to a survey of nurse job satisfaction, 1954- 57.

90.8 Records of the Bureau of State Services
1948-63

History: Established as a headquarters element of PHS by PHS Reorganization Order No. 1, December 30, 1943, implementing Public Health Service Act (57 Stat. 587), November 11, 1943. Consisted initially of the States Relations Division (less Sanitary Section retained by Office of the Surgeon General), Venereal Disease Division, and Industrial Hygiene Division (redesignated Division of Occupational Health, 1951). Administered PHS federal-state and interstate programs in areas of community health, including hospital construction, training of medical personnel, and control of communicable diseases and environmental health, including air pollution control, community sanitation, solid waste disposal, and pesticides.

Tuberculosis Control Section, States Relations Division, redesignated Division of Tuberculosis Control, pursuant to the Public Health Service Act of 1944 (58 Stat. 682), July 1, 1944. Office of Malaria Control in War Areas separated from States Relations Division and designated Communicable Disease Center, July 1, 1946. Hospital Facilities Section, States Relations Division, redesignated Division of Hospital Facilities in implementation of Hospital Survey and Construction Act (60 Stat. 1040), August 13, 1946. In PHS reorganization of 1949, States Relations Division abolished new Divisions of Chronic Disease, Dental Public Health, Engineering Resources, Public Health Education, Public Health Nursing, Sanitation, State Grants, and Water Pollution Control established in Bureau of State Services Division of Tuberculosis Control redesignated Division of Tuberculosis and Division of Hospital Facilities transferred to Bureau of Medical Services. Division of Chronic Disease and Division of Tuberculosis consolidated to form Division of Chronic Disease and Tuberculosis, 1951. Acquired Division of International Health from Office of the Surgeon General, April 1, 1953. Returned, November 1, 1959.

Division of Dental Public Health established, 1949. Consolidated with Division of Dental Resources, Bureau of Medical Services, to form Division of Dental Public Health and Resources, Bureau of State Services, September 1960. Division of Health Mobilization established in Bureau of State Services, 1959. Transferred to Office of the Surgeon General, July 1960.

Division of General Health Services established, 1954, absorbing Divisions of Public Health Nursing, Public Health Education, and State Grants. Superseded by Division of Community Health Practice, February 1, 1961. Division of Sanitary Engineering Services established, 1954, absorbing Divisions of Engineering Resources, Sanitation, and Water Pollution Control. Separate Division of Water Supply and Pollution Control established April 1959 Division of Air Pollution Control, September 1960. Division of Sanitary Engineering Services superseded by Division of Environmental Engineering and Food Protection, 1961. Division of Special Health Services established, 1954, absorbing Divisions of Chronic Disease and Tuberculosis, Occupational Health, and Venereal Disease. Abolished by functional realignment, 1960-61.

Bureau of State Services reorganized into separate Community Health Divisions (See 90.9) and Environmental Health Divisions (See 90.10), effective September 1, 1960. Abolished by HEW reorganization order, June 29, 1967, pursuant to Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1966, effective June 25, 1966, with community health services and hospital construction to newly established Bureau of Health Services (See RG 512), training and professional development to Bureau of Health Manpower (See RG 512), and communicable disease control and environmental health to Bureau of Disease Prevention and Environmental Control (See RG 412).

90.8.1 General records

Textual Records: Divisional and legislative information records, 1958-62. Subject files of Harold F. Eisele, 1954-63. Management studies, 1948-63.

90.8.2 Records of the Division of General Health Services

History: Established 1954, consolidating Divisions of Public Health Nursing, Public Health Education, and State Grants. Replaced by Division of Community Health Practice, February 1, 1961. See 90.9.2.

Textual Records: State and local financial assistance plans, 1948-61. Records of the polio vaccine distribution program, 1955-57.

90.8.3 Records of the Division of Public Health Nursing

History: Office of Public Health Nursing established from Public Health Nursing Section, States Relations Division, Bureau of State Services, July 21, 1944. Lost professional responsibilities to Division of Nursing (See 90.6.2), 1946. Professional responsibilities restored, 1949. Redesignated Public Health Nursing Branch and assigned to newly established Division of General Health Services, Bureau of State Services, 1954. Reconstituted as Division of Public Health Nursing, 1958. Abolished, with functions to newly established Division of Nursing, Bureau of State Services, September 1960, see 90.9.4.

Textual Records: Administrative files, 1951-59.

90.8.4 Records of the Water Pollution Control Division

History: Established 1949. Terminated with functions to Division of Sanitary Engineering Services, 1954. See 90.8.5.

Textual Records (in Boston): Records of the Northeast Drainage Basins Office, consisting of general correspondence relating to the New England New York Inter-Agency Committee (NENYIAC), 1950- 55 NENYIAC final report ("Gold Books"), 1954-55 project correspondence and data files, 1950-55 river basin ("Comprehensive Program") data files, 1950-55 basic data files of the Pollution Control Study and Report Group, 1950-54 and records of the Water Supply Study and Report Group, 1951-54.

90.8.5 Records of the Division of Sanitary Engineering Services

History: Established 1954, consolidating Divisions of Engineering Resources, Sanitation, and Water Pollution Control. Separate Division of Water Supply and Pollution Control established, April 1959 (See RG 412). Separate Division of Air Pollution established, September 1960 (See 90.10). Superseded by Division of Environmental Engineering and Food Protection, 1961.

Textual Records: Correspondence, 1953-54, 1957-58. Correspondence of the Air Pollution Engineering Program, 1959-60.

90.8.6 Records of the Division of Special Health Services

History: Established 1954, consolidating Divisions of Chronic Disease and Tuberculosis, Occupational Health, and Venereal Disease. Abolished with functions dispersed, 1960-61.

Textual Records: Correspondence and project records of the Air Pollution Medical Program, 1955-60.

90.9 Records of the Community Health Divisions, Bureau of State
Services
1940-69

90.9.1 Records of the Division of Chronic Diseases

History: Established from Division of Special Health Services (See 90.8.6), February 1, 1961. Absorbed by Bureau of Health Services, 1967. Functions vested in Regional Medical Programs Service, Health Services and Mental Health Administration, 1968. See RG 512.

Textual Records: Correspondence, 1967-69. Records of the Surgeon General's Advisory Committee on Smoking and Health, consisting of general records, 1962-64 and a reference file, 1962-64, of source documents cited in committee report Smoking and Health (1964).

90.9.2 Records of the Division of Community Health Practice

History: Established as successor to Division of General Health Services (See 90.8.2), February 1, 1961. Redesignated Division of Community Health Services, November 1961. Assigned to Bureau of Health Services, 1966. Redesignated Community Health Service, Health Service and Mental Health Administration, 1968. See RG 512.

Textual Records: Reports of meetings of the Ad Hoc Advisory Group on Community Health Services and Facilities Legislation, 1961-62. Report of a meeting of the Surgeon General's Advisory Group on Community Health Services, February 7-8, 1963. Records of the National Advisory Community Health Committee, consisting of reports of meetings, 1963-65 records of the Subcommittee on Research in Community Health, 1963 and the final report of the Subcommittee on Evaluation of Programs Supported by Community Health Service Projects, 1966.

90.9.3 Records of the Division of Dental Health and Resources

History: Established by consolidation of Division of Dental Public Health and Division of Dental Resources, Bureau of Medical Services, September 1960. Redesignated Division of Dental Health, 1965. Assigned to newly established Bureau of Health Manpower, 1967. See RG 512.

Textual Records: Records, 1965-66, of the National Dental Health Assembly Conference (Feb. 6-9, 1966).

90.9.4 Records of the Division of Nursing

History: Division of Nursing Resources, Bureau of Medical Services (See 90.7.2) and Division of Public Health Nursing, Bureau of State Services (See 90.8.3), consolidated to form Division of Nursing, Bureau of State Services, September 1960. Assigned to newly established Bureau of Health Manpower, 1967. See RG 512.

Textual Records: Records of Congressional hearings on the Nurse Training Act of 1964, 1964. Records of the Professional Nurse Traineeship Program, 1960- 62. Trip reports of PHS nursing consultants, 1955-63. Historical files of the Division of Nursing and its predecessors, 1940-67.

90.10 Records of the Division of Air Pollution, Environmental
Health Divisions, Bureau of State Services
1965-66

History: Division of Air Pollution established from Division of Sanitary Engineering Services, September 1960. Abolished with functions to National Center for Air Pollution Control, Bureau of Disease Prevention and Environmental Control, 1967. See RG 412.

Textual Records: Correspondence, 1965-66.

90.11 Records of the National Board of Health
1879-84

History: Established as an independent agency by an act of March 3, 1879 (20 Stat. 484), to consist of seven private citizens one medical officer each from the army, navy, and Marine Hospital Service and one officer from the Department of Justice. Advised the federal and state governments on public health preservation and improvement. Enforced the Quarantine Act (21 Stat. 5), June 2, 1879. Quarantine Act lapsed, June 1, 1883, and quarantine functions reverted to Marine Hospital Service. Board continued as an investigatory and advisory body through annual appropriations, 1883-85. Terminated for lack of funds, June 30, 1886. Formally abolished by Quarantine Act (27 Stat. 449), February 15, 1893, which repealed the Quarantine Act of 1879.

Textual Records: Minutes of the Board and its Executive Committee, 1879-82. Secretary's journal, 1879-82. Letters sent and received, 1879-83, with registers of letters received, 1879- 82. Committee reports, 1879-80. Form letters and questionnaires sent to municipal health authorities, 1879-81. Printed weekly bulletins, 1879-82. Report of the Yellow Fever Commission, 1880, on the epidemic of 1878. Proceedings of the International Sanitary Conference, Washington, DC, 1881 and of the National Conference of State Boards of Health, St. Louis, MO, 1884. Disbursement ledger, 1879-83.

Microfilm Publications: M753.

Finding Aids: Charles Zaid, comp., Preliminary Inventory of the Records of the National Board of Health, PI 141 (1962).

Related Records: Record copies of publications of the National Board of Health in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government.

90.12 Textual Records (General)
1914-74

Records of the Tacoma Indian Hospital (in Seattle), including medical correspondence, night and day reports, records relating to 1942 renovations, cadet nurse training files, miscellaneous reports, environmental health project case files. and statistical reports, 1929-74. Records of the Indian Health Service including Program Correspondence/Record Books from Poplar, Montana, 1914-54 (in Seattle) Tacoma Indian Hospital reports, 1929-59 (in Seattle) and BIA Statement Reports from Portland, Oregon, 1952-60 (in Seattle). Environmental health program and project files of the Phoenix Indian Medical Center, 1950-68 (in Los Angeles). Records relating to the New England New York Inter-Agency Committee (NENYIAC) of the Northeast Drainage Basins Office, 1950-55 (in Boston).

90.13 Cartographic Records (General)
1918, 1942-51

Maps: Negative photostats of maps of aviation fields and army camps near Fort Worth, TX, prepared for a study of sanitary conditions, 1918 (2 items). Drainage basins in California, Great Basin, Pacific Northwest, Western Gulf, and Ohio, relating to water uses and water pollution, 1942-51 (17 items).

See Architectural and Engineering Plans under 90.4.23.

90.14 Motion Pictures (General)
1924-50

Science of Life programs about life science education and personal hygiene, 1924 (12 reels). Films relating to a variety of PHS activities and health concerns, 1938-50, including cancer research (4 reels) nursing (1 reel) rat control (3 reels) industrial safety (2 reels) dental hygiene (1 reel) and communicable diseases (3 reels) and the causes and spread of venereal disease (23 reels), including a 1938 documentary Three Counties Against Syphilis, a study of the treatment of syphilis among blacks in Camden, Glynn, and McIntosh Counties, GA.

90.15 Sound Recordings (General)
1942

PHS radio program entitled "Help Yourself and Your Community to Better Health," broadcast over Station WOL (Mutual) during National Negro Health Week, and featuring Assistant Surgeon General E.R. Coffey discussing the role of blacks in public health, April 5, 1942 (1 item).

90.16 Still Pictures (General)
1862-1934

Photographs: General collection of the PHS, documenting PHS hospitals, quarantine stations, and other facilities PHS personnel research and treatment of diseases, including malaria, yellow fever, and other infectious and communicable diseases nutrition, sanitation, and hygiene and immigrants, 1898-1934 (G, 9,500 images).

Photographic Prints: Civil War subjects, by Alexander Gardner and Mathew Brady, 1862-65 (CM, 118 images). Health conditions at ports in Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, and Guatemala, in album, presented to the Surgeon General by the United Fruit Company, 1906 (WW, 100 images).

Posters: Hookworm disease and need for improved sanitation, 1920. (SP, 9 images).

Bibliographic note: Web version based on Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives of the United States. Compiled by Robert B. Matchette et al. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1995.
3 volumes, 2428 pages.

This Web version is updated from time to time to include records processed since 1995.


The Camry SE V6 pumps out 260 hp, with a 2019 XSE reaching upward of 300 horsepower. The 2019 XSE has a top speed of 135 miles per hour and a 0-to-60 time just over 7 seconds. The Camry SE V6 was one of the most powerful Toyota cars at its inception, however, boasting 0-to-60 times around 7 seconds while most cars of the era settled around 10 seconds for their 0-to-60 runs.

The Camry Solara was a slightly slower and more affordable version of the Camry SE V6 which relied on a 3.3-liter V6 power plant, putting over 200 hp to the ground, the Solara SE Sport could scoot from zero-to-60 in 6.9 seconds.


Four Purposes of P.L. 94-142

  • “to assure that all children with disabilities have available to them … a free appropriate public education which emphasizes special education and related services designed to meet their unique needs
  • to assure that the rights of children with disabilities and their parents … are protected
  • to assist States and localities to provide for the education of all children with disabilities
  • to assess and assure the effectiveness of efforts to educate all children with disabilities”

Source: Education for All Handicapped Children Act, 1975

P.L. 94-142 was a response to congressional concern for two groups of children. The law supported more than 1 million children with disabilities who had been excluded entirely from the education system. The law also supported children with disabilities who had had only limited access to the education system and were therefore denied an appropriate education. This latter group comprised more than half of all children with disabilities who were living in the United States in the early 1970s. These issues of improved access became guiding principles for further advances in educating children with disabilities over the last quarter of the 20th century.

Through such sustained federal leadership, the United States today is the world leader in early intervention and preschool programs for infants, toddlers, and preschool children with disabilities.



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