Classroom Activity : Taxation in the Middle Ages (commentary)

Classroom Activity : Taxation in the Middle Ages (commentary)


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

This commentary is based on the classroom activity: Taxation in the Middle Ages

Q1: Study source 4. Select a passage where John Wycliffe expresses an opinion on taxation. Explain how Wycliffe attempted to persuade people that it was wrong to tax poor people.

A1: John Wycliffe was expressing an opinion when he states that "Lords do wrong to poor men by unreasonable taxes." Wycliffe tried to persuade people to agree with him by pointing out the consequences of taxing poor people ("they perish from hunger and thirst"). He also provides a highly dramatic image of this suffering ("and in this manner the lords eat and drink poor men's flesh and blood.")

Q2: Give as many reasons as you can why the king and his parliament imposed taxes. Which of these reasons do you think the king thought was the most important?

A2: Source 3 provides several reasons why the king and his parliament imposed taxes. Richard FitzNeal argues that taxes were used to pay soldiers' wages, to buy weapons, to protect towns and to maintain the monarchy.
The king's attitude towards the relative importance of these reasons would depend on his situation. In times of peace a large percentage of tax revenue would be used to maintain the monarchy. However, during war the most important reason for raising taxes was to pay soldiers' wages and to buy weapons.

Q3: What kind of different taxes were imposed during the Middle Ages? Explain the type of taxes that would have been particularly disliked by the following groups: (a) large landowners; (b) wool merchants; (c) poor peasants.

A3: There were four main taxes in the Middle Ages: (i) taxes on the ownership of land; (ii) taxes on the ownership of movable property; (iii) taxes on goods being exported; (iv) taxes on each person. Large landowners particularly disliked taxes on land, whereas wool merchants hated taxes on exports. Both groups did not like taxes on movable goods. The poor peasants did not mind taxes (i), (ii) or (iii) as they did not have to pay them. The poor hated equal rate poll taxes (iv) as they had to pay the same amount as the rich.

Q4: Explain the differences between the poll tax of 1379 and the poll tax of 1380.

A4: In 1379 the peasants only had to pay 4 pence per head. What the rest of the population paid depended on their wealth (this is known as progressive taxation). For example, the Duke of Lancaster paid 400 times more than a peasant. However, in 1380 the peasant had to pay 12 pence per head. What is more, the tax ceased to be progressive as all people, except beggars, paid the same.

Q5: What did the author of source 8 think about the 1381 poll tax? Would everyone in England have agreed with him?

A5: The author of source 8 thought that the 1381 poll tax was unfair. The rich people who voted for the poll tax in parliament probably thought the tax was a good one. They would have argued that it was fair that everybody paid the same.

Q6: "Change always means progress." Is this statement always true? Answer this question with reference to the introduction of the Poll Tax.

A6: People in the Middle Ages responded to the introduction of the poll tax in different ways. Those who benefited from this change in taxation probably saw it as an example of progress. However, those who found that they had to pay more tax because of this measure would not have agreed. As a large number of people living in the 14th century disapproved of the poll tax, it would be difficult to argue that this change in taxation was an example of progress.

Q7: Select sources from this unit that helps to explain why the poor hated having to pay taxes. What other types of sources might help you answer this question? Comment on the advantages and disadvantages of using the sources you have suggested.

A7: Sources 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 11 and 12 all contain information on why the poor hated taxes. In source 4, John Wycliffe claimed that taxes sometimes resulted in poor people dying from starvation. As source 2 points out, people sometimes had to sell their property in order to pay their taxes. Some people died of starvation because they had been forced to sell their animals and farming equipment in order to pay their taxes. This unit shows how sources such as engravings, sermons and songs can provide information on why the poor hated paying taxes. Other sources that could be used include manuscript paintings, woodcuts, chronicles, letters, diaries, graffiti, poems and court records.
The main advantage of visual sources is that they can provide information on suffering caused by taxes and resistance to the imposition of taxes. Letters, diaries, sermons, poems, songs, chronicles would provide details on how the peasants reacted to the taxes. Most of these sources would be from the point of view of the rich and powerful. We only have a few sources written by the poor who had to pay these taxes. This would include songs sung by wandering minstrels and poems written by William Langland.


Middle Ages

The Middle ages lasted from the 5th all the way to the 15th century in Europe. The beginning of the Middle Ages is marked with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the end of the Middle Ages by the rise of the humanism idea in North Italy, known as Renaissance.

The Middle Ages is usually split into three different periods:

The First period is the end of the Roman Empire and the invasion of the Barbarians who created their own kingdom on the ruins of the Western Roman Empire. At the same time and later during the 7th Century, territories of the formerly Eastern Empire were conquered by the Islamic Empire.

The Second period is known as High Middle Ages which started around 1000 AD. It was marked with the growth of the population in Europe, and with new society form-Feudalism. Also the first ideas of the Crusades were introduced it was an attempt of the Christians to regain the power over the Middle East and the Holy Land.

The Late Middle Ages was probably the worst period of the Middle Ages regarding the overall health situation in Europe. Indeed, the Black Death, killed a 3rd of the population in Europe. It was one of the reasons the rulers turned their back to the Catholic Church and decided to adopt the new Humanistic ideas of Renaissance. With the end of the Middle Ages came the Early Modern period.

People

Cities, Buildings & Money

War, Torture & Criminals

Lifestyle, Culture & Society

Law & Government

Events & Advancements

Countries, C ontinents & Time Periods

Sports, Activities & Entertainment

Work & Education

Religion

Art, Music & Dance

General


Why We Wrote This

Are the rich taxed too lightly? It’s a question that has recurred for more than a century. Leaked tax records of billionaires may be swinging the pendulum again.

Journalism, like history, doesn’t repeat itself, but it can rhyme – loudly.

In 1933, The New York Times revealed that millionaire J. Pierpont Morgan Jr. paid no income tax in the previous two years.

Eighty-eight years later – this month – the investigative news website ProPublica revealed that billionaire Jeff Bezos paid no income tax in 2007 and 2011.


Defining the Middle Class

One straightforward way to evaluate how economic well-being has changed for the middle class is to look at the real median household income over time. Examining median incomes is appealing because it is simple, resistant to outliers, and aligns with the intuition that the middle class falls in the middle of the income distribution. We use data on incomes from the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) from the Current Population Survey. The ASEC provides a self-reported, pretax measure of household incomes in the United States, which we deflate using the personal consumption expenditure (PCE) price index. 1 Plotting these data shows that median household income has been increasing over time and is higher now than in 1980, despite a decade of stagnation in the 2000s (figure 1, orange line).

Despite the virtue of its simplicity, using real median household income as a measure of middle-class well-being has some shortcomings. The main drawback for the question we are investigating is that the population in the United States looks much different in 2018 than it did in 1980. Households today are smaller, older, more educated, and more racially and ethnically diverse on average than they were 40 years ago. Because older and more educated people tend to have higher incomes than younger and less-educated people, these demographic shifts could raise the median income, without necessarily indicating that any particular group is better off. Said differently, a typical person of any given age and education level in 2018 may not have a higher real income now than he or she would have had in 1980. Rather, there is a larger share of people who are middle-aged and highly educated, and this larger share pulls up the median income. On the other hand, there is also a larger share of black and Hispanic people in the United States today than in 1980, and these groups have tended toward lower incomes on average, a circumstance that would have the opposite effect.

To accommodate these demographic shifts, Emmons and Noeth (2015a) use a demographic-based definition of the middle class that takes into account age, race, ethnicity, and educational attainment, which gives a clearer picture of how economic prospects have changed over time aside from demographic changes. Under this definition, households are classified as middle class based on the demographic characteristics of the householder, typically the person under whose name the housing unit is owned or rented. Households considered to be middle class under this definition are those whose householders&rsquo demographic characteristics are not typically associated with being chronically upper or lower class. Demographic characteristics associated with being chronically lower class include &ldquobeing young, having less than a high school education, and being a member of a historically disadvantaged minority,&rdquo while characteristics associated with being upper class include &ldquobeing middle-aged or older, having a college degree, and being white or Asian&rdquo 2 (Emmons and Noeth, 2015a).

Emmons and Noeth (2015a) use the following definition of a demographic middle class:

  • Age 40+, and
  • White or Asian with exactly a high school diploma, or black or Hispanic with a two- or four-year college degree.

We modify Emmons and Noeth&rsquos definition slightly to focus on households whose householder is aged 40 to 55, the ages where income is the most stable. We exclude those over 55 years of age to focus on the typical working middle-aged population, rather than retirees and those who are cutting back work hours due to age. To be clear, households with householders who are not ages 40 to 55 may well be part of the middle class, but we restrict the age range to reduce the effect of age as a confounding factor on income. Roughly one-fifth of households fit this demographic definition of the middle class.


Black Death

Historians generally agree bubonic plague was the cause of the disease we call the Black Death. Only in the mid-19th Century did scientists begin to have an understanding of the mechanism for the transmission of such diseases. But you may be surprised to find out that people in the Middle Ages understood that good sanitation and similar precautions could help slow the progress of the plague.

I. Your assignment is to read and analyze the document Pistoia, "Ordinances For Sanitation In A Time Of Mortality" below.

Approach your reading of each primary source using the questions below as a guide:

  1. What does the document state?
  2. What elements within the document have likely connections to the plague and its effects? In what way?
  3. In what ways, if any, does the document differ from other first- or secondhand accounts the class has read?
  4. What possible sources of bias or unintentional inaccuracy should be taken into account?

II. The following specific questions should guide your reading:

  1. What do the ordinances say?
  2. Which ordinances, if any, would likely have reduced deaths from the plague? Which, if any, would not?
  3. What do the ordinances suggest the council believed about how the plague spread?
  4. Which occupations would be affected by the ordinances?
  5. Which occupations would likely suffer as a result of the ordinances?
  6. Which might actually prosper?
  7. Which procedures required by ordinances XIV-XXII would you recommend be continued after the plague is gone, if you could advise the citizens of Pistoia (armed with our knowledge of sanitation and disease)?
  8. Assuming ordinances XIV-XXII remained in effect after the plague, how would life have changed (compared to the years before the Black Death) for those to whom the ordinances apply?

III. Answering the questions about the ordinances should help you stage an "interview" with one of the lords Anziani and the Standardbearer of Justice and another with a member of the working class.

Your staged interview should provide the following information to the class:

  • Explain the purpose of the ordinances.
  • Give examples of specific ordinances.
  • Discuss how the ordinances were likely to change how tradesmen and/or craftsmen worked.
  • Showcase ordinances you think would prove productive during the plague and in the future and others you think would not be productive.
  • Make connections for the other students explaining how the Black Death resulted in changes for those who survived.

Group 2

First, for background, read In the Wake of the Black Death from paragraph 7, "Masters and merchants petitioned their governments to intervene" to paragraph 9, "which denounced the corruption of officials and the clergy."

I. Approach your reading of each primary source using the following general questions as a guide:

  1. What does the document state?
  2. What elements within the document have likely connections to the plague and its effects? In what way?
  3. In what ways, if any, does the document differ from other first- or secondhand accounts the class has read?
  4. What possible sources of bias or unintentional inaccuracy should be taken into account?

II. Read the Ordinance of Labourers and The Statute of Labourers (from EDSITEment resource Internet Medieval Sourcebook).

The specific questions below should guide your reading:

  1. The Ordinance of Labourers mentions the plague ('pestilence') in the first paragraph. What does the document say about the connection between the plague and the problems the ordinances are supposed to address?
  2. Who is considered a laborer? Who is not?
  3. In what ways do the ordinances attempt to regulate laborers?
  4. In what ways do the ordinances attempt to regulate tradesmen? In what ways do the ordinances attempt to regulate employers of laborers?
  5. Who is responsible for enforcing the ordinances?
  6. How/Where are the ordinances supposed to be circulated?
  7. In what ways does the Ordinance of Labourers reflect changes in society? In what ways does the Ordinance of Labourers attempt to prevent changes in society?
  8. How does the The Statute of Labourers attempt to enforce the Ordinance of Labourers?
  9. What does the The Statute of Labourers suggest about the attitude of commoners toward the nobility?
  10. What does the The Statute of Labourers suggest about the attitude of the nobility toward commoners?
  11. In what ways do the Ordinance of Labourers and The Statute of Labourers suggest life is different in England as a result of the Black Death?

III. Answering the questions about the ordinances should help you stage an "interview" with the king and another with a laborer.

Your staged interview should provide the following information to the class:

  • Explain the purpose of the Ordinance of Labourers and The Statute of Labourers.
  • Give examples of specific ordinances and statutes.
  • Discuss how the ordinances and statutes were intended to change the lives of laborers.
  • Make clear the ways the ordinances and statutes were likely to be successful or to fail. How would laborers be likely to feel about the ordinances? Those who would employ laborers?
  • Make connections for the other students explaining how the Black Death resulted in changes for those who survived.

Group 3

First, read a brief modern summary of the events, In the Wake of the Black Death—a link from EDSITEment resource Internet Public Library, starting with the words "the decline in populations and inflation" in paragraph 9, and ending with "although the poll tax was abolished." in paragraph 19.

I. Approach your reading of each primary source using the following general questions as a guide:

  1. What does the document state?
  2. What elements within the document have likely connections to the plague and its effects? In what way?
  3. In what ways, if any, does the document differ from other first- or secondhand accounts the class has read?
  4. What possible sources of bias or unintentional inaccuracy should be taken into account?

II. Your assignment is to read accounts of the revolts known as the The Jacquerie (1358) and the Peasants' Revolt 1381 (both from Internet Medieval Sourcebook) each written by someone who lived at the time.

The specific questions below should guide your reading:

The following specific questions should guide your reading:

  1. What were the demands of Wat (Walter) Tyler?
  2. What about Wat's behavior indicated a change in attitude toward the nobility?
  3. What did the king promise?
  4. What happened when Wat was arrested?
  5. How did the king deal with his rebellious subjects?
  6. Which of the king's promises did he keep?

III. Answering the questions about the accounts should help you stage an "interview" with one of the leaders of each revolt and another with King Richard.

Your staged interview should provide the following information to the class:


You can rely on these done-for-you activities to promote critical discussion:

14. The Global Oneness Project

This beautiful collection of multimedia includes films, essays, and photography highlighting the universal themes of humanity. Special collections include hot topics like climate change, migration, and endangered cultures. The artwork within all the collections is beautiful, but the bonus is that the webpage offers lesson plans for teachers! Help “bring the world to your classroom” and have a look today.

15. The Critical Media Project

The Critical Media Project (CMP) is a free media-literacy web resource for educators and students ages 8–21.

CMP provides relevant media clips and follow-up discussion questions based on Common Core Standards that engage with students’ capacity to think critically about identity politics and advocate for social change. CMP is founded on the notion that media literacy and analysis are fundamental to all education, and in today’s complex political landscape, we agree!

16. iCivics

Use the power of gaming to teach your students about civics! This fun and interactive site provides full lesson plans and online games that put your students in the roles of lawmakers and civic servants.

BONUS: Follow @iCivics on Twitter to stay up to date on policy and legislation news, plus see how other teachers are using iCivics in their classrooms!

17. IWitness

Explore survivor testimonies with this well-organized activity library for educators. Select your language preferences and choose from a database of powerful videos and Common Core lessons that help your students unpack hatred. BONUS: Check out their completely free professional development webinars.

18. Constitute

This extensive searchable database is your one stop shop for accessing constitutions from governments all over the world. Have your students search, read, and compare the laws of cultures around the globe. Filter by country, topic, date adopted, and status. Though there are no lesson plans here, this site is sure to catalyze high-level classroom discussion for high school students.


Upper vs. Lower Middle Class

Still, even within the middle class itself, there are different tiers of income - namely, upper vs. lower middle class.

Based on Pew research using 2014 data, households making between $31,000 to $42,000 were considered lower-middle class, while three-person households making between $126,000 to $188,000 were considered an upper-middle-class. 

Other estimates for upper-middle-class income ranges from $100,000 to $149,999 and lower-middle class and middle class ranging from the mid $35,000 range. 


Classroom Activity : Taxation in the Middle Ages (commentary) - History

The civil rights movement of the 1950s and '60s defined a generation. Watch this video to learn about the movement, its leaders, and the sacrifices made in the fight for equal rights.

The Little Rock Nine

In 1957, nine black students walked into Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas—and into history. Relive their experience with this American History play.

Want to see more from Junior Scholastic magazine?

Famous quotes from civil rights leaders throughout history

“Change does not roll in on the wheels of inevitability, but comes through continuous struggle. And so we must straighten our backs and work for our freedom. A man can't ride you unless your back is bent.”

— Martin Luther King Jr.

“People always say that I didn’t give up my seat because I was tired, but that isn’t true. . . . No, the only tired I was, was tired of giving in.”

“By the force of our demands, our determination, and our numbers, we shall splinter the segregated South into a thousand pieces and put them back together in the image of God and democracy.”

“You are not judged by the height you have risen but from the depths you have climbed.”

Four civil rights figures who made an impact

This Baptist minister become the most important leader of the civil rights movement. His “I Have a Dream” speech at the 1963 March on Washington encapsulated the historic vision behind the movement for African American equality.

A prominent black attorney, he represented the plaintiffs in Brown v. Board of Education—the case that struck down “separate but equal” in U.S. schools—before the U.S. Supreme Court. Marshall later became the first African American justice on the Court.

Barbara was just 16 years old in 1951 when she led a courageous protest to integrate the schools of her Virginia town. The lawsuit Johns started would become one of the cases folded into the historic Brown v. Board of Education ruling.

When Jackie Robinson joined the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947, he became the first African American to play in baseball’s major leagues. In doing so, Robinson also helped open up all professional sports in the U.S. to black players.

Supplemental resources that link to external websites about the civil rights movement

A chronology of the struggle for civil rights in America, from President Harry S. Truman’s desegregation of the armed forces in 1948 to the Fair Housing Act of 1968

Martin Luther King Jr.: A Biography

Essential details about the movement’s most important leader, with links to more than two dozen short videos related to Dr. King and other civil rights pioneers.

On August 28, 1963, about a quarter of a million people gathered on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., for the largest civil rights rally up to that time.

Terms and definitions that pertain to the civil rights movement

a religious or national song, or a song that expresses the ideas of a particular group

to refuse, as an act of protest, to participate in a certain event or to buy particular products

the rights of a country’s citizens, including social and political freedom and equality

describing laws and practices that discriminated against African Americans after the Civil War

the separation of people by race, ethnic group, gender, class, or personal orientation

a protest in which people seat themselves somewhere and refuse to move until their demands are met

Discover other free social studies topics and middle school teaching resources

The Roles of the Presidency

From Commander in Chief to chief of state, the president has many critical roles.

An overview of humanity’s first large societies: how they formed, who ruled them, and how they influenced the world today.

The United States Constitution

The Constitution is the supreme law of the land. It established our federal government and defined our government’s relationship with the states and citizens.

Women’s History: The Struggle for Equality

Learn about important women throughout history—including Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Sojourner Truth—and the progress that’s been made in the fight for gender equality.

The History and Heroes of World War II

An overview of World War II: why the U.S. got involved, what citizens did to fight back, and how people worldwide were affected

These inspiring teens fought for what they believed in—and made history in the process.

Social Studies Debate Kit

Teaching the art of debating—and how to write an effective argument essay—can help students master critical-thinking and communication skills.

Mastering Media Literacy and Digital Literacy

In an increasingly digital world, being able to navigate technology skillfully and evaluate online resources for accuracy and trustworthiness is crucial.

Teaching map skills can build students’ geography knowledge—and enhance their understanding of the world in which they live.

An overview of civics: what it means to be a good citizen, how democracy works, and why staying informed and engaged matters—even as kids.

The Civil War and Reconstruction

Use these features and supporting resources to give students deeper as well as broader knowledge of these key periods in U.S. history.

The U.S. is a nation of immigrants, built by people who left their homes to seek new lives and opportunities. However, Americans' feelings about immigrants are mixed.

Empower Your Students
to Explore Their World

Discover Junior Scholastic
Magazine for Grades 6–8

@historyhd On Unsplash (Civil Rights March) Bettmann/Getty Images (MLK) Gluekit (Photo Colorization), Rudolph Faircloth/AP Images (classroom) Bettmann / Contributor (woman and girl on Supreme Court steps) Bettmann/Getty Images (Little Rock Nine) CNP/Hulton Archive/Getty images (MLK) Stock Montage/Getty Images (Thurgood Marshall) Courtesy Of Joan Johns Cobbs (Barbara Johns) Mark Kauffman/Getty Images (Jackie Robinson)


Entertainment in the Middle Ages

Entertainment in the Middle Ages - Life in the Middle Ages - History of Entertainment in the Middle Ages - Information about Entertainment in the Middle Ages - Entertainment in the Middle Ages Facts - Entertainment in the Middle Ages Info - Middle Ages era - Middle Ages Life - Middle Ages Times - Life - Entertainment in the Middle Ages - Medieval - Mideval - Entertainment in the Middle Ages History - Information about Entertainment in the Middle Ages - Entertainment in the Middle Ages Facts - Entertainment in the Middle Ages Info - Middle Ages era - Middle Ages Life - Middle Ages Times - Information - Facts - Dark Ages - Medieval - Mideval - Feudal system - Manors - Middle Ages Times - Information - Facts - Dark Ages - Medieval - Mideval - Feudal system - Manors - Entertainment in the Middle Ages - Written By Linda Alchin


Meet Jessica, a TeacherVision Teacher

"I'm Jessica Peresta, elementary music mentor, blogger, and podcaster. One of my favorite types of resources is blog posts. I love how TeacherVision has everything we need all in the one place and provides a variety of resources. The subscription definitely saves teachers time, because you seriously can find everything you need in one place."

JESSICA PERESTA
Music Educator

Find the right resources, right now

Your prep time just got a whole lot shorter.

  • An ever-growing library of more than 20,000 worksheets, lesson plans, and activities
  • Organizational tools and resources to help you manage your classroom and engage your students

Create an effective learning environment

The right tools to help you focus on building an inclusive, dynamic classroom community rather than policing behavior—although we can help you with that, too!

  • Teacher-tested classroom/behavior management tools and advice
  • Special education resources
  • Creative bulletin board ideas, icebreakers, and social-emotional skill-builders

Get access to new FutureFit resources—all on a personalized platform

FutureFit Skills & Projects bring social-emotional learning and 21st-century skills into the subjects you’re already teaching.
Learn more about FutureFit

MyTeacherVision is is your new one-stop classroom shop—a place where you can quickly find the materials you need, stay organized, and discover new content that’s been curated just for you based on your individual profile.
(Included with paid membership)
Learn more about MyTeacherVision

Welcome to your new home on TeacherVision!

MyTeacherVision is your new one-stop classroom shop—a place where you can plan your day, quickly find the materials you need, and discover new content that’s been curated just for you based on your individual profile. Included free with any of our paid membership plans, it brings TeacherVision’s best resources and tools into a personalized platform that can be used across all of your devices.


Watch the video: CA Sanjay Mundhra Income Tax Class 1 Part A I Tax Rate I


Comments:

  1. Amen

    You are not right. I am assured. I can defend the position. Write to me in PM, we will discuss.

  2. Arakora

    Remarkably, the very funny opinion

  3. Hymen

    I apologize, but in my opinion you are wrong. I offer to discuss it.

  4. Heortwiella

    Thanks for the explanation.



Write a message