The Last Ironsides - The English Expedition to Portugal, 1662-1668, Jonathon Riley

The Last Ironsides - The English Expedition to Portugal, 1662-1668, Jonathon Riley


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The Last Ironsides - The English Expedition to Portugal, 1662-1668, Jonathon Riley

The Last Ironsides - The English Expedition to Portugal, 1662-1668, Jonathon Riley

In the aftermath of the Restoration Charles II was faced with the problem of what to do with the old Parliamentary army. Most units were simply disbanded, but a force based around the garrison of Scotland was sent to Portugal to help in their war of independence from Spain. This was one of the arrangements that surrounded Charles's marriage to Catherine of Braganza, the Infanta of Portugal (in return Charles was given Tangier and Bombey, as well as his bride). This small force was made up of a mix of old Ironsides and Catholic supporters of the Stuarts who were unable to find employment in the small post-restoration English army. The Portuguese war effort relied on a multi-national force, a mix that was well demonstrated by its commander, the half-English half-German Frederick Hermann, 1st duke of Schomberg, sent to Portugal by Louis XIV of France.

The first few chapters set the context for the campaign, and include a look at the Portuguese revolt, the state of European politics at the time and the raising and nature of the English bridge. There is also a look at the nature of warfare at the time, with a focus on the special situations on the Portuguese borders, where there were two short campaigning seasons each year (before and after the hottest part of summer), the limits of how long armies could stay in the field and the impact that had on the campaign. This was a war of frequent sieges and short campaigns that rarely led to a major battle.

Riley is very good on the problems caused by the Portuguese high command, political disputes in Lisbon and the low abilities of many of the Portuguese high commanders. Schomberg's successful attempts to deal with these problems play a major part in the story and it was his political successes that allowed the army to win its military successes. The accounts of the sieges and rarer battles are clear and readable, quite an achievement with the limited sources available.

This is an excellent account of an almost forgotten episode in English military history, and essential reading for anyone interested in the New Model Army and its fate.

Chapters
1 Portugal, Spain and Europe, 1580-1660
2 The Portuguese Marriage Treaty, 1660-1662
3 Raising the English Brigade, 1661-1662
4 The English Brigade, 1662-1663
5 The Capture of Evora, May 1663
6 Ameixial, May 1663
7 The Recapture of Evora, May-June 1663
8 Valencia de Alcantara and the Campaign of 1664
9 Montes Claros, 1665
10 Taking the War into Spain, Autumn 1665
11 The Campaigns of 1666-1667
12 THe Last Acts, 1667-1668

Annex A: List of the English Brigade
Annex B: Rates of Pay

Author: Jonathon Riley
Edition: Hardcover
Pages: 192
Publisher: Helion
Year: 2014



Jonathon Riley (British Army officer)

Riley joined the British army as a cadet in 1971 [2] was commissioned into the Queen's Regiment in 1974. [3] He was promoted to lieutenant on 9 March 1976, [4] to captain on 9 September 1980, [5] and, having attended the Staff College, Camberley, in 1987, he was promoted to major at the end of the year. [6] During this time he saw active service in Northern Ireland. [1]

Promoted to lieutenant colonel in 1993, [7] Riley undertook a tour as an instructor at the Staff College, Camberley, that year. He was deployed as Commanding Officer of the 1st Bn the Royal Welch Fusiliers to the Muslim enclave of Goražde in 1995 under a mandate to ensure the Serbs did not violate the NATO ultimatum. The Army of Republika Srpska attacked the town without warning, capturing 33 soldiers under Riley's command and several hundred other fellow United Nations peacekeepers in May. Having halted the initial Serb attack, the battalion handed over the defence of the enclave successfully to the Bosnian 81st Division. During the siege that followed, protocol was broken when first the Director of Military Operations, then the Chief of the General Staff and finally Prime Minister John Major telephoned Riley to be briefed on the situation. [8] The enclave was successfully defended and unlike Srebrenica and Zepa it never fell to the Serbs the 33 Fusiliers and fellow UN peacekeepers were later rescued safely. [9] He was awarded the Distinguished Service Order for gallantry and distinguished services in the Former Republic of Yugoslavia in 1996 [10] and promoted to full colonel in July 1997. [11]

Promoted to brigadier on 31 December 1998, [12] Riley became Commander of 1st Mechanised Brigade in Bosnia in 1999 and Commander of the UK Joint Task Force in Sierra Leone in 2000. [13] He was awarded the Queen's Commendation for Valuable Service for his service in Sierra Leone, which successfully concluded the ten-year war there. [14] and became Deputy Commandant of the Staff College and Director of the Higher Command and Staff Course in 2001. [15]

Riley was deployed as Deputy Commanding General of the Coalition Military Advisory and Training Team in Iraq in May 2003 and then became Commanding General Multi-National Division (South East), Iraq and GOC British Forces in November 2004 with promotion to major-general. [16] In 2005, he was awarded the United States' Legion of Merit for his service in Iraq. [17]

Riley served as Colonel of the Royal Welch Fusiliers, from 2006 to 2007. [18] [19]

On 18 December 2007, Riley was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-general and appointed deputy commander of the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan. [20] [21] He was awarded the NATO Meritorious Service Medal by the Secretary-General of NATO and, having been appointed Companion of the Order of the Bath (CB) in the 2008 New Year Honours, [22] he transferred to the reserve on 15 September 2009. [23]

On 14 December 2009, Riley gave evidence to The Iraq Inquiry in which he stated that British troops had not expected to be faced with an insurgency and also defended the decision to disband the Iraqi Army after the invasion. [24] Then, in February 2011, he gave evidence at the trial of Radovan Karadžić at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in The Hague on the incident in May 1995 when his troops had been held in captivity. [9]

Riley was appointed Director General and Master of the Royal Armouries, Britain's national collection of arms and armour, early in September 2009. [25] Subsequently, he was appointed Visiting Professor in War Studies at King's College London. [26]

Riley joined the UK Independence Party (UKIP) in 2012. He said he "believed passionately that we had to regain our national sovereignty, the control of our laws and our borders, and escape the unelected, unaccountable tyranny of the EU Commission." [27] He later left the party, arguing it had "lost its way" and stating that he disagreed with the views of those who had taken charge at the time. [27]

Riley is on the advisory board of Veterans for Britain, an organisation with the aim "to put forward the Defence and Security arguments for the UK to vote to leave the European Union" and following the referendum to "Support Her Majesty's Government in the task of restoring full sovereign control to all aspects of the defence of the Realm in accordance with that mandate of the people." [28]

On 19 January 2021, Riley re-joined UKIP, [29] [30] and was selected as the lead candidate for UKIP for the Mid and West Wales region of the Senedd for the 2021 election. [31] He was not elected to the Senedd and returned to private life. [32]

Riley has written and edited a number of books on military history, including:


The Last Ironsides - The English Expedition to Portugal, 1662-1668, Jonathon Riley - History

Posted on 19 October 2014.

When Charles II returned home he began the search for a dynastic marriage. He fixed upon the Infanta of Portugal, Catherine of Braganza, whose dowry included the possession of Tangier, Bombay and valuable trade concessions.

The Portuguese had been fighting for their independence from Spain for twenty years and needed alliances to tip the scales in their favor. In return for the concessions Charles agreed to send to Portugal a regiment of horse and two of foot, which provided an excuse to ship away the remnants of the Cromwellian armies that had not been disbanded at the Restoration.

The English and French regiments fought with courage and discipline at the series of major battles and sieges that followed, most of which have never been properly described. This is, therefore, the rediscovery of a lost episode in our military history.

It was the English and French soldiers, under Schomberg’s leadership, who proved the decisive factor in winning back Portugal’s independence. But in return for their courage in battle, the English soldiers were rewarded with insults and want of pay. At the conclusion of peace in 1667, only 1,000 out of the 3,500 men who made up the force were left standing. 400 of these received what was effectively a death sentence: they were shipped to Tangier to join the fight against the Moors.

The author’s detailed but lively text is fully supported by a range of illustrations and specially commissioned maps.

About the Author
With a distinguished Military career spanning over 40 years, Jonathon Riley has written 15 books, both Military and Historical. Retiring from the armed forces in 2009, he continues his work as a Military Technical Advisor, external examiner at Cranfield University and visiting lecturer on Military History and Campaign Studies and visiting professor to King’s College London, War Studies. Jonathon Riley has three more books due out this year.
Book Details


Reviews

Use spaces to separate tags. Use single quotes (') for phrases.

Overview

• Fascinating study recounting a long-forgotten campaign conducted by the British Army in Portugal during the early years of the reign of Charles II
• The majority of the British soldiers were English Civil War veterans
• Includes many images of the battlefields today, as well as historical illustrations, and specially-commissioned maps

When Charles II returned home he began the search for a dynastic marriage. He fixed upon the Infanta of Portugal, Catherine of Braganza, whose dowry included the possession of Tangier, Bombay and valuable trade concessions. The Portuguese had been fighting for their independence from Spain for twenty years and needed alliances to tip the scales in their favour. In return for the concessions Charles agreed to send to Portugal a regiment of horse and two of foot, which provided an excuse to ship away the remnants of the Cromwellian armies that had not been disbanded at the Restoration. The prospect of service was at first well received - "Major-General Morgan drew forth his regiment of foot consisting of 1000 proper men besides officers, and made a short speech, acquainting them that his Majesty had been graciously pleased to design them for honourable service abroad. . . Whereupon they all with great acclamations of joy, cried out ' All, all, all. . ." There were also officers and men who had remained loyal to the crown to them Charles owed a debt of employment, Former Royalists therefore made up the balance of the regiment of horse - uncomfortable bedfellows for their former enemies.

The English and French regiments fought with courage and discipline at the series of major battles and sieges that followed, most of which have never been properly described. This is, therefore, the re-discovery of a lost episode in our military history. It was the English and French soldiers, under Schomberg's leadership, who proved the decisive factor in winning back Portugal's independence. But in return for their courage in battle, the English soldiers were rewarded with insults and want of pay. At the conclusion of peace in 1667, only 1,000 out of the 3,500 men who made up the force were left standing. 400 of these received what was effectively a death sentence: they were shipped to Tangier to join the fight against the Moors. The remainder returned to seek service in England or abroad - but places were hard to find. One veteran of the horse summed up the feelings of many - ". . . there was never a more gallant party went out of England upon any design whatever, than were that regiment of horse. . . they came into the country full of money and gallantry, and those which survived left it as full of poverty and necessity."

…Excellent and highly recommended book if you have any interest at all in the early British Army.
Arquebusier

This books fills an important gap in the history of the British Army in the 17th century.
Journal of the Society of Army Historical Research

…a very interesting look at a long forgotten campaign…this lively, well-written account will prove interesting reading for any armchair general.
NYMAS

…a riveting story, very well told and eminently readable…
Fortress Study Group

In short a great book that will be going with me to Normandy next year.
Army Rumour Service

This book is a valuable contribution to seventeenth century military history, and a fitting tribute to the brave men, whether royalist or parliamentarian, catholic or protestant, who took the redcoat of the English Brigade to the Iberian Peninsula a century or more before Wellington.
Battlefield Magazine


The Last Ironsides by Jonathon Riley

5 stars - The Last Ironsides: The English Expedition to Portugal, 1662-1668 "A superbly researched book, well-written and full of interesting stuff on one of the British Army's most obscure campaigns. Anyone with an interest in the military side of the English Civil Wars will find this fascinating." by Diomedes

The Last Ironsides - Book Reviews

Army Rumour Service Website

"It's clear from the brief precis above that the author himself is well acquainted with both the operational and strategic aspects of any campaign, here he has explained both in a clear and simple style. There is no patronising or talking down to the reader, just a clear explanation of how these affected the campaigns and decisions of various commanders.

"The book is logically laid out, starting with the situation within England in the immediate aftermath of the restoration, and the strategic situation facing the new King both at home and abroad. The normal methods of recruiting in this time frame are explored with a clear explanation of the methods used by military entrepreneurs to raise units for service abroad, and explains how this was beginning to change as the need for more permanent military structures, establishments and formations was realised. "

The Society of Friends of The National Army Museum

"This impressive volume gives one pause in two aspects firstly it is another nail in the coffin of that tired old saw that all history has been written, especially of the British Army and its antecedents. Secondly, one can only wonder where the author, who retired as a Lieutenant General in 2007 having been Commander of British Forces in Iraq amongst other senior postings, finds the time, space and energy to produce such a work amidst so many other demands. It would stand as a PhD theses."

"As we track through this impeccably researched work, we find that the travails of coalition warfare are far from a recent phenomenon. Under-resourced troops, performing beyond shortages of supplies and war fighting materiel diplomatic action and scheming out of touch with realities on the ground scratch forces formed in urgent necessity from among what was available, not necessarily being the best. With "mission accomplished" with the recognition of Portuguese independence in the Treaty of Lisbon in 1668, the French commander hastily withdrew with his forces, owed considerably back pay by those he had fought for, leaving his son commanding the British brigade, a force much diminished by casualties. "

Phil McCarty

Review 4 - The NYMAS Review - A Publication of the New York Military Affairs Symposium (below)

A lost story from our military history

These battles and battlefields are described and mapped for the first time (in English at least) in more than 300 years.

"When Charles II returned home he began the search for a dynastic marriage. He fixed upon the Infanta of Portugal, Catherine of Braganza, whose dowry included the possession of Tangier, Bombay and valuable trade concessions. The Portuguese had been fighting for their independence from Spain for twenty years and needed alliances to tip the scales in their favour."

In return for the concessions Charles II agreed to send to Portugal a regiment of horse and two of foot, which provided an excuse to ship away the remnants of the Cromwellian armies that had not been disbanded at the Restoration. The prospect of service was at first well received - "Major-General Morgan drew forth his regiment of foot consisting of 1000 proper men besides officers, and made a short speech, acquainting them that his Majesty had been graciously pleased to design them for honourable service abroad. . . Whereupon they all with great acclamations of joy, cried out ' All, all, all. . ." There were also officers and men who had remained loyal to the crown to them Charles owed a debt of employment, Former Royalists therefore made up the balance of the regiment of horse - uncomfortable bedfellows for their former enemies.

The English and French regiments fought with courage and discipline at the series of major battles and sieges that followed, most of which have never been properly described. This is, therefore, the re-discovery of a lost episode in our military history.

The author's detailed but lively text is fully supported by a range of illustrations and specially-commissioned maps.

Binding: Hardback Book Size 234mm x 156mm
Number of pages: 192 pages
Images: c 50 ills inc. 8pp colour, 22 maps
Language: English text


Books & Contributions by Lt-Gen Jonathon Riley CB DSO PhD MA FRHistS

As an accomplished Military History author, Jonathon Riley has written 24 books and has co-authored and contributed to many more.

WINNING WARS
A multi-author volume bringing together experts on all periods of military history

What does it mean to win a war? How does this differ from a simple military victory? How have different cultures and societies answered these questions through history, and how can we apply these lessons? When considering how a war might be 'won', there are three big ideas that underpin how success can be measured: ownership, intervention for effect, and fighting for ideas. These three main themes also contain a series of sub-themes: internal and external, short-term and long-term, military success versus political success, and tactical outcomes versus campaign effects versus strategic success. This book examines the constituent parts of what may comprise ‘victory' or ‘winning' in war and then travels, chronologically, through a wide variety of historical case studies, further exploring these philosophical components and weaving them into a factual discussion. The authors of each chapter will explore the three big ideas within the context of their individual case studies, offering pointers as to where, within that framework, their case study may sit. The message of this book is not just an academic exploration for its own sake, but a really vital aspect (both morally and practically) of the political and military business of the application of force. In short, know in advance how you wish to end before you start.

Contributors: Professor Kerry Brown – Dr Aaron Edwards – Professor John France Professor Lothar Höbelt – Dr Rob Johnson – Dr Richard Kuno – Dr Carter Malkasian Professor Daniel Marston – Dr Andrew Monaghan – Dr Ali Parchami Professor David Parrott – Professor Nicholas Rees – Professor Richard Reid - Dr Jonathon Riley – Dr Andrew Sharpe – Professor Matthias Strohn Dr Christopher Tuck

FIRE-STEP TO FOKKER FODDER
By Andrew White

Introduction by Jonathon Riley

Jack Lidsey was one of the first to volunteer during the Great War, enlisting as a private soldier in his local regiment, the Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry, in August 1914. He was sent to the Ypres Salient in March 1915, experiencing trench warfare around Ploegsteert Wood before moving south to the Somme in France. Lidsey was sent home for commissioning early in 1916, re-joining his battalion as a Second Lieutenant just in time for the Somme offensive of that summer. Time and again, he led his platoon into hails of enemy machine-gun fire, grenade and artillery attacks around Pozières, where the Oxfordshires took horrendous casualties. By any measure, Jack was lucky to survive, and in November 1916 he decided to try a different approach to warfare - from the air.

Ghosts of Old Companions. Lloyd George's Welsh Army, The Kaiser's Reichsheer and the Battle For Mametz Wood, 1914-1916

By Jonathon Riley - May, 2019

The 38th (Welsh) Division was formed from many thousands of Welsh volunteers in late 1914 and 1915 as part of Kitchener’s New Armies – a force for the long war that he was the first to recognise. It was to be ready for battle in 1917. David Lloyd George strongly supported the expansion of the British Army and even hoped for a Welsh Army Corps, to be formed from the 38th, 53rd and 68th (Welsh) Divisions, along with the Welsh infantry and cavalry units drawn from regular divisions of the Army.

This book reveals new material on, among other matters, the forces involved, the Christmas Truce of 1915, the German fortifications of Mametz Wood and the casualties on both sides.

Format: Hardback Pages: 350 pages, 124 b/w photos, 27 b/w ills, 39 maps

Regimental Records of the Royal Welch Fusiliers
Volume 5

Lt-Gen Jonathon Riley (Author), Lt-Col Peter Crocker (Author) & The Late Lt-Col Sinnett (Author)

Volume V, Part One: November 1918 – May 1940

Volume V, Part Two: June 1940 - 1945

This Volume fills the gap between the end of Volume IV in November 1918 and the beginning of Volume VI in late 1945. During the Great War, the Regiment fielded a total of forty-five battalions, if the five battalions of the Volunteer Force are included. This is the fourth highest total of any regiment on the Army List during those years, and remarkable given the relative paucity of population in Wales, compared with the great urban centres of England. During the Second World War, and without double-counting those units which changed their title, the Regiment fielded three regular battalions, including a parachute battalion, seven Territorial battalions, six service battalions, two independent companies, three anti-tank companies or batteries, five artillery regiments and two independent H.G. troops, twenty-eight Home Guard battalions and three M.T. Companies – a total of fifty-one battalion-equivalent units.

For this reason, Volume V has had to be divided into two parts. Part One covers the Regiment’s service from November 1918 – including a wrap-up of Great War units left unfinished in Volume IV – to the Summer of 1940 Part Two covers Summer 1940 to late 1945. The division in the Summer of 1940 was chosen because at that point, the 1st Battalion, 101st L.A.A. & A.T. Regiment and the Independent Companies had all been evacuated from Europe the 2nd Battalion was homeward bound from India the four first-line T.A. battalions had embarked for Northern Ireland the four second-line T.A. battalions had been fully embodied the first tranche of service battalions had been formed and the Local Defence Volunteers were being transformed into the Home Guard. This seemed to the authors to be more logical than a rather artificial division on 3 September 1939.

The emphasis of the volume is of course on the Second World War during which our battalions, independent companies and artillery regiments served in every major theatre and campaign, except Ethiopia and Syria. However the division into two parts has allowed a proper examination of the British Army between the wars and its deployments around the world. In addition to the Imperial garrisons and the experimentation programme at home, there were operations in North and South Russia, the Transcaucasus, Turkey, Germany, Cyprus, Palestine, Somalia, Eritrea, Egypt, Ireland, Afghanistan, the North-West Frontier of India and China. It was no long week-end.

The Volume will be launched at the National Army Museum on 28 March 2019, where copies will be available at a discounted price. Details of this event will be circulated separately by Regimental Headquarters. There will then be signing events in Cardiff and Wrexham where again, books will be available at a discounted price details will be circulated. Thereafter, books can be ordered – again at a discount to past and present members of the Regiment – either for postal delivery or collection at Cardiff, Wrexham and Caernarfon.

Regimental Records Volume V is being published as a commercial venture by Helion & Co. The copyright and royalties lie with the Regimental Museum of The Royal Welch Fusiliers, a registered service charity.

UP TO MAMETZ AND BEYOND
Revised Edition

Edited & Annotated by Jonathon Riley
The Royal Welch Fusiliers

Llewelyn Wyn Griffith's Up to Mametz was published in 1931, forming one of the finest accounts of soldiering on the Western Front, telling the story of the creation of a famous Royal Welch Fusiliers.

Jonathon Riley discovered Wyn Griffith's unpublished diaries and letters which pick up where Up to Mametz left off through to the end of the War carefully editing and annotating the events of those missing years.

THAT ASTONISHING INFANTRY :
Revised Edition

by Michael Glover & Jonathon Riley
The History of The Royal Welch Fusiliers 1689-2006

The Royal Welch Fusiliers were one of the six Minden regiments who fought throughout the Peninsula and were present at Wellington's final glorious victory at Waterloo.

Their officers included the writer poets Siegfried Sassoon and Robert Graves.

This fine book is the lasting memorial to a fiercely proud and greatly admired regiment.

This is the new revised edition of THAT ASTONISHING INFANTRY is due out shortly.

'The Last Ironsides'
by Jonathon Riley

published by Helion & Company

"When Charles II returned home he began the search for a dynastic marriage. He fixed upon the Infanta of Portugal, Catherine of Braganza, whose dowry included the possession of Tangier, Bombay and valuable trade concessions. "

The author's detailed but lively text is fully supported by a range of illustrations and specially-commissioned maps.

OPERATION INSANITY:
The Dramatic True Story of the Mission That Saved Ten Thousand Lives

by Colonel Richard Westley (Author), Mark Ryan (Author)
Published 1st September 2016

"After two years, I received the call from Jonathon Riley, who knew I'd been a Royal Welch Fusilier for ten years after leaving Sandhurst. He asked me, "How do you fancy coming back to become a company commander?".

Everything Riley did was an education for us his intellect and experience were invaluable. "

In the midst of the horrors of the Bosnian War, Richard Westley found himself commanding British troops in a battle to save an entire town from massacre. It proved to be one of the British Army's finest hours since the Second World War. In the summer of 1995, the Bosnian town of Goražde came under attack from the Bosnian Serb Army, despite having been designated a Safe Area by the United Nations. Soldiers of the Royal Welch Fusiliers, sent to the area as UN peacekeepers, outnumbered, lacking firepower and without air support, began to be taken hostage by the encroaching Serbian forces, while the city itself came under bombardment.

OFT IN DANGER General Sir Anthony Farrar-Hockley by Jonathon Riley

A biography of the most distinguished field commander of modern times.
Farrar the Para’: The boy soldier who became a General

Binding: Hardback
ISBN: 9781910777251
Language: English text
Publisher: Helion & Company

"The First Colonial Soldiers. Volume 2: the Americas and the Caribbean"
(Published in 2 Volumes - Co-authored by Wienand Drenth and Jonathon Riley

Volume 2 - part I: New England, the Middle Colonies, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia and Hudson Bay

Volume 2 - part 2: The Southern Colonies, the Bermudas, Jamaica, the Barbadoes, the Leeward Islands and Central and South America..

The collaboration between Wienand Drenth and Jonathon Riley gives the most detailed information on the military forces and garrisons, offering unparalleled and highly detailed data on this most fascination period of history.

With an introduction by René Chartrand

These two volumes give a most descriptive account for the first time, of Military Operations of the United Colonies, together with detailed lists of the officers and their Regiments.

640 pages, with an index of officers and over fifty illustrations and maps

ISBN: 978-90-818887-3-8

"The First Colonial Soldiers: A Survey of British Colonies and Their Garrisons, 1650 - 1714"

Volume 1: the British Isles, Europe, Asia and Africa. With an introduction by Professor John Childs, this volume covers the Channel Islands, the Isle of Man, Dunkirk, Mardyck, Gibraltar, Minorca, Tangier, the West African settlements, St Helena and the Far Eastern outposts of the Honourable East India Company.
(Co-authored by Wienand Drenth and Jonathon Riley)

These Military History books provide full lists of the officers the regular and militia forces in the colonies and overseas territories, including biographical details they also give details of the expeditions that seized the territories.
Published by Drenth Publishing, Eindhoven, Netherlands Information Sheet.

"The Last Ironsides: The English Expedition To Portugal, 1662 - 1668"
July 15th 2014

(Book launch)
A lost story from our military history, can be found on the Helion & Co website

These battles and battlefields are described and mapped for the first time (in English at least) in more than 300 years.

"When Charles II returned home he began the search for a dynastic marriage. He fixed upon the Infanta of Portugal, Catherine of Braganza, whose dowry included the possession of Tangier, Bombay and valuable trade concessions. The Portuguese had been fighting for their independence from Spain for twenty years and needed alliances to tip the scales in their favour."

"British Generals in Blair's Wars" - 2013

Edited by Jonathan Bailey, Richard Iron and Hew Strachan, University of Oxford, UK

For the first time, we read personal testimonies from senior ranking Military Officers, who amidst high political controversy, were faced with the challenges and changes of the operational direction of war. A true insight into Britain's involvement in major military operations. From Northern Ireland, through Kosovo and Sierra Leone, to Iraq and Afghanistan.

As one of the books' contributors, Jonathon Riley, provides a first-hand view of Britain's participation in the chapter entitled "NATO Operations in Afghanistan 2008–2009: A Theatre-Level View" , which gives a 'real sense' of how the character of a war changes even as it is being fought. Essential reading for those in both Staff Colleges and Military Academies.

Further Military History Publications By the Author Lt-Gen Jonathon Riley

The Sixth Coalition and the Downfall of Napoleon

1813 Empire at Bay

1813 was a critical year in the world war that ended with the downfall of Napoleon. In a series of major battles, the converging armies of the Sixth Coalition drove the French forces back.

In graphic detail, Riley covers the 1813 campaigns, which have received less attention than those of 1812 and 1814/15 in spite of the fact that all the decisive moments came in 1813 - save for one: Waterloo.

The Life, Campaigns And Generalship Of Isaac Brock

A Matter Of Honour

The Life, Campaigns And Generalship Of Isaac Brock

The monument to Isaac Brock (1769 1812) on Queenston Heights in Canada, as high as Nelson s column in London, pays tribute to the military commander of all troops opposing the American invasion of Canada during the War of 1812. He was killed on the morning of 13 October 1812, leading a company of the 49th Foot in a counter-attack.

From Yorktown to Operation Desert Storm

From Yorktown to Operation Desert Storm

What makes a battle decisive?

Jonathon Riley draws on his personal experience as a soldier and historian to explore the definitive battles of the modern era from Yorktown in 1781 to Operation Desert Storm in 1991. Each battle included is a turning point, the outcome of which has changed the face of history.

Diaries & letters of Llewelyn Wyn Griffith

This book picks up where "Up to Mametz" the creation of the famous Welsh wartime battalion (The Royal Welch Fusiliers) left off.

General Jonathon Riley, on discovering Wyn Griffith's unpublished diaries and letters, with careful editing and annotation, presents the events of these missing years, alongside the original work.

Command from the Battlefield to Grand Strategy

Opens with a short treatise on generalship, defining Napoleon's achievement before moving on to the man himself. Riley examines Napoleon as a strategist as a coalition commander Napoleon's campaigns & Napoleon on the battlefield.

"Jonathon Riley is ideally placed, as a soldier and an historian, to write this definitive book on Napoleon as one of history's most renowned commanders." International Napoleonic Society

The Life & Campaigns Of General Hughie Stockwell

From Burma to Norway
Through Suez

The Life & Campaigns Of General Hughie Stockwell

From Burma to Norway
Through Suez

A timely biography of a soldier at the heart of the action during World War II and turbulent post-war years. Commissioned into the Welch Fusiliers he fought in Norway 1940, commanded the Special Training Centre at Lochailort & 2nd Battalion Royal Welch Fusiliers during the successful invasion of Madagascar 1942.

That Astonishing Infantry

The History of the Royal Welch Fusiliers 1689-2006

By Michael Glover &
Jonathon Riley

That Astonishing Infantry

The History of the Royal Welch Fusiliers 1689-2006

By Michael Glover &
Jonathon Riley

The Royal Welch Fusiliers, were one of the six Minden regiments they fought throughout the Peninsula and were present at Wellington's final glorious victory at Waterloo. Their 22 battalions fought not just on the Western Front but Gallipoli, Egypt, Palestine, Salonika, Mesopotamia and Italy.

Napoleon And The World War of 1813

Lessons in
Coalition Warfighting

Napoleon
And The World War of 1813

Lessons in
Coalition Warfighting

By J.P. Riley

Brigadier Riley's approach, has in many ways cut 'the Gordion knot' of this difficult period. This analysis of the world war between Napoleon and the 6th coalition in 1813 covers operations in Europe, Spain and North America, examining differences between long-term international relationships in alliances & the short-term union of coalitions.

The Royal Welch Fusiliers
In Bosnia

Introduction By Jonathon Riley

The Royal Welch Fusiliers Wrexham
1995 / 1997

The Royal Welch Fusiliers
In Bosnia

A copiously illustrated record of the Battalion's 1995 tour of duty in Bosnia.

From Pole to Pole: Life of Quintin Riley

From Pole to Pole:
Life of Quintin Riley
1905-80

Quintin Theodore Petroc Molesworth Riley was born on 27 October 1905. In 1930, he was enlisted as meteorologist on the British Arctic Air Route Expedition from 1930 to 1931 spending a further year in Greenland. He then joined the British Graham Land Expedition from 1934 to 1937 serving as meteorologist and commissariat officer.

Monitor Mission
In The Balkans

Official History of the European Community Monitor Mission in the former Yugoslavia
1991 - 1993

By Jonathon Riley

Monitor Mission
In The Balkans

By Lieutenant General
Jonathon Riley

The Monitor Mission was the Official History of the European Community Monitor Mission in the former Yugoslavia
1991 - 1993.

Lieutenant-General Jonathon Riley was serving on it at the time as Head of Mission.

It has since been used as a source at the International Criminal Tribunal Yugoslavia. University.

Instinctive Leadership, Intuitive Decision Making

A Command Study Of General Sir Hugh Stockwell

Instinctive Leadership, Intuitive Decision Making
A Command Study Of General Sir Hugh Stockwell

Defence College
Of Management
And Technology

Cranfield University
PhD Thesis

The History Of The Queen's Royal Surrey Regiment

The Queen's Royal Surrey Museum

The History Of The Queen's Royal Surrey Regiment

The history covers the Infantry Regiment of the British Army which existed from 1955 to 1966

Soldiers of The Queen
The History of
The Queen's Regiment 1966-1992

Lieutenant Colonel J.P. Riley

Soldiers of The Queen
The History of
The Queen's Regiment
1966-1992

Lieutenant Colonel JP Riley

"Take my wench, take my pay, take my ration, take my all sir, but please don`t take my Regiment!" (unknown soldier)

In the final analysis, a Regiment of over 3,000 men just ceased to exist so that some 350 members of the Royal Hampshire Regiment could join a new Regiment, comprising overwhelmingly of Queensmen

Regimental Records Of The Royal Welch Fusiliers

The Royal Welch Fusiliers
2001

Regimental Records Of The Royal Welch Fusiliers, 1945-2000

The definitive history of the Regiment from the end of the Second World War to 2000.

Volume VI (1945-69) has 489p 94 photographs plus illustrations and maps.

Volume VII (1969-2000) has 506p 105 photographs plus illustrations and maps).


The Last Ironsides

When Charles II returned home he began the search for a dynastic marriage. He fixed upon the Infanta of Portugal, Catherine of Braganza, whose dowry included the possession of Tangier, Bombay and valuable trade concessions. The Portuguese had been fighting for their independence from Spain for twenty years and needed alliances to tip the scales in their favour. In return for the concessions Charles agreed to send to Portugal a regiment of horse and two of foot, which provided an excuse to ship away the remnants of the Cromwellian armies that had not been disbanded at the Restoration. The prospect of service was at first well received - "Major-General Morgan drew forth his regiment of foot consisting of 1000 proper men besides officers, and made a short speech, acquainting them that his Majesty had been graciously pleased to design them for honourable service abroad. . . Whereupon they all with great acclamations of joy, cried out ' All, all, all. . ." There were also officers and men who had remained loyal to the crown to them Charles owed a debt of employment, Former Royalists therefore made up the balance of the regiment of horse - uncomfortable bedfellows for their former enemies. The English and French regiments fought with courage and discipline at the series of major battles and sieges that followed, most of which have never been properly described. This is, therefore, the re-discovery of a lost episode in our military history. It was the English and French soldiers, under Schomberg's leadership, who proved the decisive factor in winning back Portugal's independence. But in return for their courage in battle, the English soldiers were rewarded with insults and want of pay. At the conclusion of peace in 1667, only 1,000 out of the 3,500 men who made up the force were left standing. 400 of these received what was effectively a death sentence: they were shipped to Tangier to join the fight against the Moors. The remainder returned to seek service in England or abroad - but places were hard to find. One veteran of the horse summed up the feelings of many - ". . . there was never a more gallant party went out of England upon any design whatever, than were that regiment of horse. . . they came into the country full of money and gallantry, and those which survived left it as full of poverty and necessity.

" The author's detailed but lively text is fully supported by a range of illustrations and specially-commissioned maps. &ldquo &hellip a riveting story, very well told and eminently readable &hellip&rdquo Casemate, Journal of the Fortress Study Group

&ldquo &hellip Excellent and highly recommended book if you have any interest at all the early British Army&rdquo Arquebusier, Journal of the Pike & Shot Society

&ldquoThis impressive volume &hellip is another nail in the coffin of that tired old saw that all history has been written, especially of the British Army and its antecedents &hellip&rdquo Newsletter of the Society of Friends of the National Army Museum

&ldquo &hellip Riley has done a good job of introducing Schomberg to a new generation of readers &hellip a very welcome study&hellip&rdquo The Seventeenth Century

&ldquo &hellip This books fills an important gap in the history of the British Army in the 17th century &hellip&rdquo Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research

&ldquo &hellip a very interesting look at a long forgotten campaign &hellip , this lively, well-written account will prove interesting reading for any armchair general.&rdquo NYMAS Newsletter

&ldquo &hellip a rewarding narrative of a neglected piece of British military history.&rdquo Michigan War Studies Review

&ldquoOverall it's an excellent and well-written description of a small minor campaign, which clearly and concisely describes how the English Brigade played an integral part in securing Portuguese independence from Spain.&rdquo Army Rumour Service


Notes and Queries

1957 The Demise of Mounted Infantry (p.72)

1958 Uniforms of the Corps of Labourers in the Windward Islands (p.155)

1959 The Templer Medal 2015 (p.156)

1960 Errata re. Note 1957 (p.156)

1961 British Iron Gun Carriages (p.245)

1963 Page numbering in the Journals of 1931 (p.247)

1964 Early Barracks in Pontefract, Yorkshire (p.342)

1965 Retirement arrangements for Royal Artillery Officers, 1820s (p.342)

1966 Portrait of an Officer of the Roll Regiment, c. 1810 (p.344)


The Last Ironsides: The English Expedition to Portugal, 1662-1668

When Charles II returned home, he began the search for a dynastic marriage. He fixed upon the Infanta of Portugal, Catherine of Braganza, whose dowry included the possession of Tangier, Bombay and valuable trade concessions. The Portuguese had been fighting for their independence from Spain for 20 years and needed alliances to tip the scales in their favor. In return for the concessions, Charles agreed to send to Portugal a regiment of horse and two of foot, which provided an excuse to ship away the remnants of the Cromwellian armies that had not been disbanded at the Restoration.

The prospect of service was at first well-received &ndash "Major-General Morgan drew forth his regiment of foot consisting of 1,000 proper men besides officers, and made a short speech, acquainting them that his Majesty had been graciously pleased to design them for honourable service abroad&hellip Whereupon they all with great acclamations of joy, cried out 'All, all, all&hellip"

There were also officers and men who had remained loyal to the crown to them, Charles owed a debt of employment. Former Royalists, therefore, made up the balance of the regiment of horse &ndash uncomfortable bedfellows for their former enemies.

The English and French regiments fought with courage and discipline at the series of major battles and sieges that followed, most of which have never been properly described. This is, therefore, the re-discovery of a lost episode in our military history. It was the English and French soldiers, under Schomberg's leadership, who proved the decisive factor in winning back Portugal's independence.

But in return for their courage in battle, the English soldiers were rewarded with insults and want of pay. At the conclusion of peace in 1667, only 1,000 out of the 3,500 men who made up the force were left standing. 400 of these received what was effectively a death sentence: they were shipped to Tangier to join the fight against the Moors. The remainder returned to seek service in England or abroad &ndash but places were hard to find. One veteran of the horse summed up the feelings of many &ndash "&hellipthere was never a more gallant party went out of England upon any design whatever, than were that regiment of horse&hellip they came into the country full of money and gallantry, and those which survived left it as full of poverty and necessity."

Reviews From Hardback Edition:

&hellip a riveting story, very well told and eminently readable &hellip
&ndash Casemate, Journal of the Fortress Study Group

&hellip Excellent and highly recommended book if you have any interest at all the early British Army
&ndashArquebusier, Journal of the Pike & Shot Society

This impressive volume &hellip is another nail in the coffin of that tired old saw that all history has been written, especially of the British Army and its antecedents &hellip
&ndashNewsletter of the Society of Friends of the National Army Museum

Riley has done a good job of introducing Schomberg to a new generation of readers &hellip a very welcome study&hellip
&ndashThe Seventeenth Century

This books fills an important gap in the history of the British Army in the 17th century &hellip
&ndashJournal of the Society for Army Historical Research

&hellip a very interesting look at a long forgotten campaign &hellip, this lively, well-written account will prove interesting reading for any armchair general.
&ndashNYMAS Newsletter

&hellip a rewarding narrative of a neglected piece of British military history.
&ndashMichigan War Studies Review

Paperback 234mm x 156mm
192 pages
circa 50 illustrations, including 8 pages color
22 maps

Available Now From Helion & Amazon!

Text edited by Editor Hebber
Graphics edited by Editor Hebber
Scheduled by Editor in Chief Bill


Balkan Wargamer

My half term holiday reading has been Jonathon Riley's 'The Last Ironsides'. I am often attracted to obscure campaigns and I picked up this book in a London bookshop a while ago. It is a history of the English expedition to Portugal 1662-1668.

Portugal had been fighting for its independence from Spain for many years when Charles II was restored to the British throne. He agreed to marry the Infanta, Cathrine of Braganza, in return for a much needed cash dowry, trade concessions, and possession of Bombay and Tangier.

Part of the deal was that he would send two regiments of foot and a regiment of horse to support the Portuguese army. This was an opportunity to ship out of the country the remnants of Cromwell's New Model Army. A win-win deal by any standard.

The author covers the diplomatic background and then the campaigns the English regiments fought in. They became, with French regiments, the cutting edge of the Portugese army and distinguished themselves in several battles and sieges. Only a thousand were left standing when the war was won and 400 of these were sent to Tangier, a virtual death sentence in itself.

The English regiments mostly fought in Southern Portugal and Spain. Many of the place names are familiar to the later Peninsular War campaigns in the early 18th and 19th centuries. Badajoz, Merida and Albuquerque, amongst others.

The book is well illustrated with period drawings and modern maps. The English regiments even kept their New Model Army redcoats, so this provides another campaign for wargamers with later civil war armies.


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